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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Method of limits- show the person something to weak to percieve and go up unti they do, and they show them something that is clearly percievable and go down until they cant… this will tell u what the limits of perception is across alot of samples Method of constant stimuli Method of adjusment Perception lec 2 Short answer : psychophysical methods: signal dectection theory, method of limits, method of adjustement, magnitude estimation, cross modality, method of constant stimuli, Light: electromagnetic waves, it is a tiny particle depends on the situation -easier to talk about light as particles so photons when they hit something and are absorbed -longer wavelengths are the realm of visible lights -light can be absorbed: energy is taken up and not transmitted anywhere else ex: dust, red light passes through any other color doesn’t -diffracted: waves spread out or bend in water for ex -reflecting: happens on the eye, on the retina, it is redirected when it strikes a surface -transmitted: ex a solar panel, energy is encountering the surface and transmitted in some form, it passes through and changed into another energy with solar panels is electrical energy -refraction: how energy is altered as it passes through another medium (ex: put pool stick in pool it looks bent) ex: rainbow prism -refraction is important for vision the eyes do it a lot, ex with our lense, or even with the glasses that we wear Human eye Evolution -photoreceptors then nerves fibres that pass on messages -flat direct areas are more blurred, less spatial vision -more detailed information, is spatial vision -to achieve spatial vision, need more depressed or folded area that allows limited directionality -pinhole helps us see things special resolved because light from some sort will only hit certain part of the retina and light will stimulate photoreceptors and light from other sources wont hit retina -having pinhole cavity is not healthy -so close the cavity with the cornea for the liquid inside is always the same, same density and make up -need to develop a lense behind the cornea Different parts of the human eye -when does agin kick in wit the eye? -after 80 years loose elasticity of lense -eye surrounded by sclera, white part -inside of eye lense hooked up on ciliary muscles -iris makes our eyes colorful it’s a muscle that contracts and dilates the pupil ith aperture of the pupil (hole/gap) -front chamber aqueous humor- water consists of cells -vitreous chamber has vitreous humor-gel like egg white like, creates a pressure and makes the shape of the eye round -balance between fluids have a good humor) -cornea living membrane with nerve endings has blink reflex -lense is not regenerated, pretty soon becomes less elastic -back of the eye there is the retina How light passes througj -enters eye passes through cornea and is refracted because cornea has a high cornea -lense only thing that can change refraction by changing the shape -iris adds to making spatial vision more acute -in dark rooms visions is not as acute when pupil is small then in light room -part of refractiom, accommodation, It is constant -need more relfection if something is closer to the eye -when ciliary muscles contract then the aperatture gets smaller and the lens relaxes into normal state -eyeball is longer reflects before retina stuff gets blurred-near sightedness myopia, see things better closer up -correct for myopia wear concave lenses which are negative -hyperpopia: far sighted lens cant bend the light eye ball is shorter, what hits the retina is a surface of light the reflection occurs/focus behing the retina -to correct it we need a convex lens (magnifying glass) -usually tends to happen to everyone, lens becomes thinner and stiffer -astigmatism: nothing to do with the lens, has to do with cornea, cornea is suppose to be spherically shaped, light gets focused at different foci -Eyes that see light -Opthamlascope invented by hemholtz -everyone has a hole in the retina where thehy can not see anything- blind spot -macula lutea aka fovea high density of cones for most acute vision - retina is part of the brain because its leads with nerves right to it -fundus back of the eye where there is the retina, the whole foundation back of the eye whole surface that contains retina -optic disk: blind spot, don’t see out of it -left eye, blind spot on left side of fovea and vice versa *slide 25 don’t rlly need to know in detail- experiment done to map out blind spot in detail, not necessarily round The retina -fovea highest photoreceptors but its also the thinnest, -light has to pass through layers and cells to hit photoreceptors where sensory transduction happens -connect ot bipolar cells and perpendicular cells -bipolar cells connect to ganglions which send neural info to other parts of the brain -amacrine cells, connect info laterally -photorecptors: assumed there is a third type we know of 2-rods and cones -rods specialized low levels of light, specificity, smaller range, compose most of the photoreceptors -10% are cones specialize for larger range of levels, daylight of diff ranges have to do with color vision -havin rods and cones2 retinas in 1, 1 for night 1 for daylight it’s a duplex retina -2 types of retinas packed into a single one -animals with only rods active more through nights -cones are usually larger than rodss -way more rods then there are cones -number of cones at diff eccentricity away from the fovea more clos
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