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Lec 7.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Matthias Niemeier

Lec 7 What is the horopter? Where objects in visual have zero disparity. Surface in space that is 2 dimensional and all the points on that surface have zero disparity. Locus of points in space that yield single vision. Makes same angle at the two eyes with the fixation lines Relationship between attention and arousal: it’s a bell curve. As you increase your arousal you can pay better attention, but with high levels of arousal, there is a decline in attention -we have a lck of brain to pay attention to everything at the same time -ex of sensory bottleneck wheres waldo, so much going on hard to take it all in -we need attention so we can focus on 1 thing at a time -we have criteria to select what is more important and that’s what we will focus more of our attention on -attention plays a role anywhere with any brain function and so diff modalities of perception, but vision is the most famous -attention cant be measured by a tool, but can be done indirectly, like looking at behavior and changes in behavior Studying attention -see what someone is focusing on by looking at how quickly people respond to things -thresholds become lower, notice things earlier -can measure brain activity wihle they are paying attention -eye movements can reflect attention-reflects overt forms of attention -covert attention: where your actions don’t demonstrate what exactly your focusing on -cueing attention: proving info of some sort to show where you are paying attention -posner: major in 1980, game changing invention. In between he presents an empty square it meant to influence attention. If it appears on the same side of target you have to respond to its called a valid cue, might indicate what a stilmulus will be. But if the cue is on the opposite side, its an invalid cue and the attention will shift and you will be slower than in the valid condition. If there is no cue at all you are slower as well -cue can be valid invalid or neutral, -cueing effect: difference between valid and invalid cue -stimulus driven cue: will appear at the same place as the stimulus so you will shift your attention there. Stimulus drives your attention -voluntary cue: symbolic cue, tells you info about the stimulus ex: arrow can be valid or invalid -the meanin of stimulus makes you shift your attention, you use knowledge -diff between stimulus driven: they don’t have to predict these targets in reliable ways whereas the voluntary cues if they point in the right direction people will use the cues -one is symbolic 1 is stimulus driven -there is undoubteable evidence they are not the same, they are independent neuro structures -SOA: time between onset of 1 stimulus and another stimulus, delay between 1 cue and stimulus, it can be varied -you benefit more from valid cues as a function of time. Valid cue takes longer to kick in than invalid to make a difference -curves continue in some ways -if you extend the time blue curve remains but red curve goes below zero meaning a negative cueing effect -it inhibits that you go back to that stimulus IOR -if you don’t find what ur not looking for at the area, you want to be able to look somewhere else, so that’s where IOR comes in to play -overt: move your eyes with attention Natural biases -when we perceive gender age emotions on a certain side -when a person is talking we pay more attention to a certain side -attention can be biased depeding on the task we are performing in a situation -line bisection task: is the line more towards left or right? -gratinscale task: meaure perceptual bias -feature based cueing: the feature becomes more visible throughut the visual field. When said to focus on a color that’s all they will look at and see what that makes up -we don’t have attention increase at a certain spot but rather across it -have a fixation spot then see something to the left and right side, focus attention to one side, see dots of colors brief flashes or red or green are important for EEG.
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