Lecture 1 : Psyb51
short answer questions - half a page answer - seq. of questions
1 sample short ques. in class
60 MCQs - 3 short answers
15 percent short answer ques. and 15 % MCQ
Final exam - cumulative
lot of details
short answers in cumulative exam would be from later lectures after midterm 1
attention lec no reading.
motivate yourself and explain concepts to others.
repeat and condense your cheat sheets
psychophysics for testing e.g. MCAT and GMAT and LSAT.
Plato - reality dependent on perceptions about the world - reality based on what we can perceive.
senses for survival
Plants have behavior
Primitive sensory motor develop for plant to survive. - sense - vibration of flying of fly - close
some not impt. that's ok bec,.it is need to survive.
process info. will be develop or not.
he is not able to see but have very good ear - but have echolocation
perception depends on channels and our selves
we have experience - adaptation
perception systems designed to pick up changes not events that just there
e.g. of adaptation
picture with 2 halves
look in plus sign then see no two color - happening in retina - more cones - left visual field is blue -
adapted to blue - slighlty reduced - right side also slightly reduced and color balance.
adaptation happening at bery early sensational stage
look at people on right side and see the middle face - see male face but if look at female face then
you see female. Fusiform face - high level face area- face perception works.
bias perception - cognitive thing big ears picture - mouse/man
Democritus - the laughing philosopher came up with concept of atom
what we see is what we get unlike plato allegory of the cave.
senses true is olfaction not sensory
main theme - sensory transduction - Perception = physcial attraction bet. world and our bodies
sensation is more of mechanistic aspect of how physical energy transduce into signals.
perception is more of cognitive aspect transduce env. to neural activity
born with Nativism - Plato
2000 later - descartes
Descartes - mind is born with this ideas.
Nativism goes together with dualism.
something we cannot know from experience – Nativism
problem of dualism view is that mind independent of matter then tough to measure difference bet.
if it is separate then how can it interact with each other.
Parsimony - best explanation
everything can be taught
mind produce with function of the brain
monism as opposed with dualism
materialism - no soul
how can be born and know things unless you experience that – Empiricism
learned through senses and form of memory- Decayed sensations
everything is perception no sensation
locke - tabularasa = clean - as we experience things we learn
nativism - born with knowledge or empiricism
not all can be explained by behaviorism
empiricism - not all even you can learn - how is it possible to be nativist - Genes.
Materialism - Darwin -
how isit possible that we have consciousness /mind
fechner - Panpyshcism - matter has consciousness
Fechner philosophy is motivation
rented a lot of psychophysics terms
how mind works - making conection Psychophysics - something in world must relate in mind and
describe it in mathematical terms
physiologist - somatosensory wts. - touch - coleague of fechner.
pt. if wt. is different atleast to percieve if it is heavier or light 40 and 41 g. difference is 1 gram - can
be quantified in intensity - i.e. wt.
difference is 10 grams 4-- and 410
same proportion - 1 g and 10 g. nearly constant - difference in intensity 1 or 10 1/40 or 10/400
constant and stays effect - Weber Fraction
why do we care change in wt.
change in perception - this is how we notice that there is a change - key element in sense of reality -
to understand how sensation and perception works - JND - 1 gram e.g
2 point tr - minimum distance which two stimuli can be distinguished
e.g. 2 pencils
have to be further apart at the back - receptors a lot in hands inside not in outside and lips not in
in brain hands larger than back bec., of receptors/senses in back
Fechner’s law chart
quantify physics as you do perceive them
0 - see to perceive something
if no photon in light - 0 - not true able to see single photon but tough - still there
curve lower and hit horizontal light later - absolute tr- no perception anymore
physical stimulus intensity - light - dim it or not. increase luminous go along hosrizontal axis
magnitude estimation - assign a number
able to count or quantify things
if you increase the physical energy inclined to go up to 10
as physical energy inc. you have to inc
. moreincrease more
not sure anymore - cause not see anything anymoree - might be 50% correct bec. not see light but
there could be light.
Method of Constant Stimuli
another curve for psychophysics
psychometric function - prop. of seeing yes i saw something
different loudness in horizontal axis - different line - diff.kind of intensity - different stimuli: be it
sound or light
can you modulate sound - 0 or 1 - count it and in terms of %ages
as things become louder - response go up
less loud things go down less likely to say somthing
hit at some pt - not go below 0 or higher than 100
S-Shaped curve- ceiling effect or floor effect
lot of reasons why hear something or not. - pscyhometric functions - increase 1 dimension
Quantify a curve or your ability -that predict success