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Matthias Neimier

PSYB51- lec1 Psychophysics: beginning of psychology Perception: oldest and most advanced topic in psychology. Not as complex as social psychology Morpheus in Matrix was actually Plato - We perceive something very limited and reality is a lot more rich. Allegory of the cave - Our conception of reality is really critically dependent on what we perceive through our senses Whatever senses have been used a lot, that determines which ones of our senses are more developed Echolocation: something that dolphins have, they send out sounds and the reflection of optics Hercalitus: ancient greek philosopher. We cannot perceive that same event more than once, it will not be the same as before we learn and the experience will change you - Adaptation - Change : what we actually perceive has to do with change. If something is always the same, we adapt to it. We are more perceptible to change Democratus: laughing philosophers. Perception is a physical connection between the world and our bodies. - A sensory transducer: all sensory neurons in all systems. It means like atoms peeling off objects or diffuse from liquids and then interact with senses Descartes: dualist view. Materialism view is prevailing in science. Dualistic view fails to prove how the two interact with eachother. Materialists say that there is no soul. So you cannot be born with knowledge about the world Empiricists: everything we know is through sensation perception. All learned, we are not born with any knowledge All materialists are not all empiricists. We now know that we have genetics and we learn from that as well. Fechner: after having vision problems, he tried to reconcile ideas of dualism and materialism and nativism and empiricism. He came up with panpsychism: all matter has consciousness. Consciousness is a property of matter. - If matter has consciousness as one property, just like weight, then it should be possible to quantify consciousness of matter just like we quantify weight. - Invented psychophysics to measure consciousness. Crucial to psychology and perception - Changes in physical world to changes in psychological events - Simplest thing to measure: perception of change - Inspired by Weber (studied touch) - Weber’s Law: the smallest change can be detected is a constant proportion of the stimulus level (dI/I=K) (I is stimulus level) (JND=just noticible difference) . constant relationship between JND and stimulus level - Fechner’s Law: magnitude of subjective sensation increases proportionally to the logarithm of the stimulus intensity - Absolute threshold: sometimes the physical stimulus diminishes so much that you wont be abel to perceive it at all. Or the minimum amount you need to perceive in order to perceive it at all. - Method limits: staircase limits We are pretty good at guessing magnitude. Even when something is multi modalities - Even to our subjective - Difference between signal and noise - 4 possibilities from two superimposed curves: false alarm, correct rejection, hit or miss o The probability of a miss and a false alarm are smaller o We can determine probability of each of possibilities by measuring sizes of curves o Quantifies ability to hear in this case  Sensitivity is depending on how close the two situations are together  If the two curves are completely overlapped, the expirament isn’t properly
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