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chapter 10.doc

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Dwayne Pare

Chapter 10LanguageHuman beings are the only species that can communicate using language that is what makes us uniquely human Without language people would not be able to communicate new ideas desires needs and corporate gatherings would be impoverished as well as the acquisition of new knowledge would be near impossible without language This is why all humans expect ones that have brain damage or total isolation can use language It is innate in that senseWe are going to look at some things in particularSounds in languagesWords Syntaxprocesses people use to decode sentencesbiological roots of languagethe ways language skills might shape how we thinkThe Organization of LanguageLanguage deals with a special kind of translation translating from scenes you have witnessed to sounds that you can utter to another person and this person needs to comprehend So it goes ideasoundsideaslanguage is organized with clear patterns in the way ideas are expressedas speakers and listeners we need to grasp the pattern of the language we need to know what ideas are intended by the words we must be able to decode syntax etcStructure starts with a idea a speaker is trying to sayit comes out in the form of asentencecoherent sequences of words that express the intended meaning of a speakerphrases this are sections of words that make up a sentence words words make up a phrase and they are made up of morphemes morphemes are units of words that can either stand alone be joined to another bound morpheme this are have to be connected to other morphemes to add meaning and make sense for instance s ing when added can add meaning to other morphemesfree morphemes these are units that can stand alone like talk umpire etcphonemes these are the smallest units of sounds that make up morphemes and can be used to distinguish wordsletters phonemes are represented by letters and symbols within this structure there are other orders people can combine and recombine to get completely new sentences never uttered before creating new phrases phonemes creating new words etcnot all combinations are possible though although Klof can be accepted Tlof cant be because Klof is pronounceable Sentences like I admired the lurking octopi cant be turned into the octopi admired the i lurkingPhonologyThe Production of Speech
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