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Lecture

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
Michael Inzlicht
Semester
Summer

Description
- video on the brain as explained by John Cleese? Talks a bunch a jibrish when talking about the details of the brain ‘E=2r?’ - Major subcortical areas of the brain: Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain - Hindbrain: Atop the spinal cord, basic rhythms, alertness - midbrain: sits above the hindbrain, coordinates movement, especially eye movement (eye movements), includes parts of the auditory pathways, regulates the experience of pain - forebrain: includes the cortex, and subcortical structures The principal structures of the brain - the subcortical parts of the forebrain include: Thalamus, hypothalamus, limbic system: Amygdala, Hippocampus - axes: left-right -> longitudinal fissure connection corpus callosum and anterior commissure - anterior-posterior: longitudinal fissure - frontal- temporal : lateral fissure ?? Parts and Functions of the Human Brain Frontal Lobe: - found under the forehead - center of reasoning, planning, some parts of speech, movement (motor cortex), emotions, and problem solving Parietal Lobe: - found on the top of your head - receives sensory input from the skin (touch, pressure, temperature, and pain) Temporal Lobe: - found on the side of your head above your ears - functions include speech perception, hearing , some types of memory Occipital Lobe: - found at the back of your head - receives input from the eyes - often referred to as the visual cortex Cerebellum: - found at the back of your head under the cerebrum - means little brain - responsible for movement, balance, posture - often takes over learned activities- like riding a bike Brainstem: - most basic part of your brain - controls functions essential to life (breathing, digesting, eliminating waste, sleeping, maintaining body temperature…) - maintains life without ‘thinking’ Corpus Callosum: - this is located centrally between the left and right hemispheres of your brain - it is a bundle of fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres - it is believed this area is involved in creativity and problem solving Videos: Pinky and the Brain – the brainstem, Aaron Wolf, Prince Ea The Principal Structures of the Brain - loss of a function associated with normal processing - damage to a part of a brain is called a lesion and tends to give us some insite on what is happening in the brain to that region of the brain - phenous gage; railroad pipe through his brain healed and recovered but his personality changed was more aggressive thus, look at brain lesions to figure out functions of the brain Lateralization - brain is roughly symmetrical, commissures connect hemispheres, corpus callosum is the largest - when talk about split brain patients the left and right hemispheres are not long communicating with one another eg. Epilpsey seizure patients may have their corpus callosum cut to reduce seizure but have issues of sharing information between the two sides of the brain - cortical organization is contralateral; the left side of the body or perceptual world has more representation on the right side of the brain and vice versa - left hemisphere produces language - right hemisphere can only point, no language - primary projection eg. Showing the hemmonclus - less precision = smaller brain area - greater precision = more brain area The cerebral cortex - association areas:(larger section of the three) create associations between simple ideas and sensations Capgras Syndrome: An initial example - recognize loved ones - but think they are impostors - may think they were kidnapped (or worse) - may even see slight ‘defects’ why does this happen? Results from a conflict: - perceptual recognition is intact but there’s a conflict but there is no emotion, lack of familiarity a disconnect to the amygdala and without that emotional information that ties the emotional connection they don’t feel like the same person - factual and emotional knowledge are dissociated - prefrontal cortex damage impairs reasoning - illogical thoughts are not filtered out - one process is broken up by the brain and processed by different areas - seeing something and not being able to connect emotionally to it - thus, intellectual reaction to the world is closely related to your emotional reaction to the world Brain Cells - the dendrites, detect incoming signals - the axon, neural impulse travels, transmits signals to other neurons - axon terminals that pass information/ signal - cell body; nucleus and cellular machinery - depending on ionic flow, what ever signal is sent that strength of signal can change, what happens to a neuron depends on the strength of the signal the neuron receives if the strength is enough to pass a then there’s some electric pulse sent through the terminals that pass or do not pass to continue on - the electrical pulse that is present or not present does not change in strength, it either fires or doesn’t fire - the number of times it fires in a row vs. the lack of firing - when talking about neuroimaging -> EEG, way to figure out what part of the brain is active during a certain behavior, stimulus representation etc. - eg. When you touch a hot surface there are two sets of info being sent one from your skin that there’s pain and your brain returning info for you to pull your hand away from the heat source, want to observe what is happening in that process so where in the brain is being lit up during such events - Glia: guide development of nervous system, repairs damage, controls nutrient flow, electrical insulation speeds signal transmission - Presynaptic neuron, postsynaptic neuron, synapse – the reason for the gap; one postsynaptic neuron can be receiving info from a lot of presynaptic neurons CT scan; x-ray the brain, static image of the brain PET scan; was the more active method of brain imaging, can see what is going on and where there is movement based on where there is flow of a radio active agent in the brain - t
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