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Lecture 12

Notes - Lecture 12 (April 02).docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
George Cree

PSYB57Week 12 Problem Solving Conscious Thought and Unconscious ThoughtProblem Solving What can we learn about problem solving by examining how experts solve problemsHow do we use analogies to help solve problemsWhat is inductive reasoning and what brain regions are involved in inductive reasoningHow Experts Solve ProblemsOrganization by deep abstract propertiesExperts encode information more efficiently chess board mess the pieces up and possibilities the experts slope down to the level of novicesExperts employ a forward search through problem space movies more likely to work backwards Experts tend to look at symptoms and make diagnoses Med students tend to diagnose first and then find evidence to substantiateSolving Problems through Analogies5 subprocesses 1 Retrieval Have problem and dont know how to solve ie something is wrong with computercould be a virus from biological science 2 Mapping Structures work Are there enough elements to map out3 Evaluation Pull out unimportant keep the vital 4 Abstraction 5 PredictionsOne of the first cognitive investigations of problems solving by analogy was conducted by Gick and Holyoak 1980Gick and Holyoak 1980 1 Problem 1 A general wishes to capture a fortress located in the center of a country There are many roads radiating outward from the fortress All have been mined Although small groups of men can pass over the roads safely any large force will detonate the mines A fullscale direct attack is therefore impossible What should the general do 2 Problem 2 Imagine that you are a doctor treating a patient with a malignant stomach tumour You cannot operate on the patient because of the severity of the cancer But unless you destroy the tumour somehow the patient will die You could use highintensity Xrays to destroy the tumour Unfortunately the intensity of the Xrays needed to destroy the tumour also will destroy healthy tissue through which the Xrays must pass Xrays of lesser intensity will spare the healthy tissue but they will be insufficiently powerful to destroy the tumour Your problem is to figure out a procedure that will destroy the tumour without also destroying the healthy tissue surrounding the tumour
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