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Lect8 Notes **Supplement with Ch8 Textbook Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Gabriela Ilie

PSY57 Memory and Cognition Lecture 8 Visual Imagery and Spatial Cognition Visual Imagery and Memory 1. Visual imagery: picturing events in your mind i.e. when a friend is recounting a story to you and you visualize the storyline in your mind 1. 2. Mnemonics: various techniques used to increase chances of remembering; many use imagery 1. Keyword method: 2-step technique for remembering foreign language vocabulary; when on thinks of the keyword, the image of the foreign word will also come to mind; eventually tapers off once the word is used more often 1. Think of an English word that sounds like the foreign word the keyword 2. Visualize the keyword (or phrase) interacting with the foreign word in some way 2. Method of loci: imagining a series of locations, typically somewhere familiar, in a specific order and imagining the items that need to be remembered in those locations 3. Pegword method: create an image of memory items by associating an ordered list to an another set of easily recalled list of nouns (ordered cues) and imagining the memory items interacting with one of the nouns 3. Dual code hypothesis: memory contains 2 distinct coding systems; improves memory over having only a single code 1. Verbal (abstract, linguistic meaning) 2. Imagery (mental pictures) 1. Pavio (1965): experiment of 4 different noun pair conditions (CC, CA, AC, AA); C concrete, A abstract 1. People spontaneously make images for concrete nouns 2. Imagery varies with concreteness
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