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University of Toronto Scarborough
Janelle Leboutillier

Hippocampus involved with learning and memory. Olfactory lobes can also generate new cells. We can use cell stains to predict overall health of the tissue. Imaging – Look at live brains and how they behave: − CT's : Uses computers to enhance computer images. − PET Scans : Look at patterns of activation. Different parts of the brain light up for different tasks. − FRMI : Take measurments of blood flow..if an area is receiving more blood flow then its more active. − MEGS – Changes in magnetic fields. Certain areas of brain are activated for particular tasks. See image. Lesion studies are used to destroy a particular area of the brain to find out its role. Chapter 2 Rostral - towards the front Caudal – towards the back Distall away from the body, proximal towards. Coronoal – cutting through from top to bottom horizontal section- brain cut in half. blood supply really important for brain..even though its really small..blood demands are huge. Pia mater follows contours of the brain. Covers all the grey matter. In central nervous system, there are three layers. Peripheral has only two layers, the arachnoid layer is missing. (page 7) Brain has some empty spaces that lack brain matter. Called ventricles (page 8). Spinal fluid flows through all of these. The brain is like can shift it play around with it but its incredibly durable. Brain not all grey matter, there are empty spaces. These are part of ventricular system.(see page 8) Spinal cord can be broken down into sections. See slide 14. Damage to the hind section, person will suffer. Controls most basic functions. Thalamus – relay station for comes in..and goes out hypothalamus – not a very large structure...but performs many functions. The limbic system is involved with emotion cerebal cortex – the rat brain is a flat brain (liccensephalic) human – gyrenchephalic. th There are 6 layers in the cortex. End of 6 layer- white matter. Go over lobes and functions in book. There are two key connection points of the brain. See slide 28. EQ – compares actual brain size to expected brain size. Lecture3 Ion channels allow ions to move. Ion channels involved with diffusion..ions from areas of higher concentration to lower. Ion pumps works opposite. Myelin is made up of gleal cells..they insulate ion Dendrite spines – children with mental retardation have different looking spines (slide 9) spines are important for receiving information. Slide 17 – remember concentrations Inside of axons more negative then inside. If only diffusion, ions that are in higher concentration inside will want to go outside to maintain balance. Inside of a neuron more negative than outside. If you deplorize a nuron, sodium channels open and sodium ions move inside to depolarize. If enough channels open, action potential is reached. During peak of action potential, potassium channels open and potassium ions move. Myelated portions are skipped during action potential. When you stimulate the neuron..its a slight positive charge. Its all or nothing, if stumlating nueron achieves threshold, then AP happens. It either happens or it doesnt, theres no in between.See slide 24 saltatory conduction much faster than passive, because myelin is wrapped around it. It jumps the regions with myelin covering...nothing is happening in terms of ion channels closing and opening (slide 30) chemical synapse – action potential comes down, causes calcium ions to come in as alcium channels open.(slide 35) calcium causes synaptic vessicles to release. Calcium The action potential – membrane of nuerons exon contains channels that allow sodium and potassium to pass through. Many + sodium ions outside, and a few inside. Many + potassium outside, and some inside. - charged protein molecules makes inside more negative. Wh
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