Hippocampus involved with learning and memory. Olfactory lobes can also generate new cells.
We can use cell stains to predict overall health of the tissue.
Imaging – Look at live brains and how they behave:
− CT's : Uses computers to enhance computer images.
− PET Scans : Look at patterns of activation. Different parts of the brain light up for different
− FRMI : Take measurments of blood flow..if an area is receiving more blood flow then its more
− MEGS – Changes in magnetic fields. Certain areas of brain are activated for particular tasks.
Lesion studies are used to destroy a particular area of the brain to find out its role.
Rostral - towards the front
Caudal – towards the back
Distall away from the body, proximal towards.
Coronoal – cutting through from top to bottom
horizontal section- brain cut in half.
blood supply really important for brain..even though its really small..blood demands are huge.
Pia mater follows contours of the brain. Covers all the grey matter.
In central nervous system, there are three layers. Peripheral has only two layers, the arachnoid layer is
missing. (page 7)
Brain has some empty spaces that lack brain matter. Called ventricles (page 8). Spinal fluid flows
through all of these. The brain is like playdough..you can shift it play around with it but its incredibly
Brain not all grey matter, there are empty spaces. These are part of ventricular system.(see page 8)
Spinal cord can be broken down into sections. See slide 14. Damage to the hind section, person will
suffer. Controls most basic functions.
Thalamus – relay station for info..info comes in..and goes out hypothalamus – not a very large structure...but performs many functions.
The limbic system is involved with emotion
cerebal cortex – the rat brain is a flat brain (liccensephalic)
human – gyrenchephalic.
There are 6 layers in the cortex. End of 6 layer- white matter.
Go over lobes and functions in book.
There are two key connection points of the brain. See slide 28.
EQ – compares actual brain size to expected brain size.
Ion channels allow ions to move.
Ion channels involved with diffusion..ions from areas of higher concentration to lower.
Ion pumps works opposite.
Myelin is made up of gleal cells..they insulate ion
Dendrite spines – children with mental retardation have different looking spines (slide 9) spines are
important for receiving information.
Slide 17 – remember concentrations
Inside of axons more negative then inside.
If only diffusion, ions that are in higher concentration inside will want to go outside to maintain
Inside of a neuron more negative than outside. If you deplorize a nuron, sodium channels open and
sodium ions move inside to depolarize. If enough channels open, action potential is reached. During
peak of action potential, potassium channels open and potassium ions move. Myelated portions are
skipped during action potential.
When you stimulate the neuron..its a slight positive charge. Its all or nothing, if stumlating nueron
achieves threshold, then AP happens. It either happens or it doesnt, theres no in between.See slide 24
saltatory conduction much faster than passive, because myelin is wrapped around it. It jumps the
regions with myelin covering...nothing is happening in terms of ion channels closing and opening (slide
chemical synapse – action potential comes down, causes calcium ions to come in as alcium channels
open.(slide 35) calcium causes synaptic vessicles to release. Calcium
The action potential – membrane of nuerons exon contains channels that allow sodium and potassium
to pass through. Many + sodium ions outside, and a few inside. Many + potassium outside, and some
inside. - charged protein molecules makes inside more negative. Wh