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Chapter 2-PSYB64.pdf

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Janelle Leboutillier

Nina 21 September, 2012 3:45 PM Re: Chapter 2 From Evernote: Chapter 2 Anatomical Directions and Planes of Section ventromedial ventral toward the belly side of animal medial toward the midline Directions in 4-legged animals rostral/anterior directional term toward the head of a 4-legged animal caudal/posterior toward the tail of a 4-legged animal e.g. dog's ears are caudal to it's nose inferior/ventral structures toward the belly side superior/dorsal toward the back of 4-legged animal anatomical directions in people are different because the neuraxis is at a 90 degree bend neuraxis: imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to then front of the brain midline imaginary line that divides us into equal halves ipsilateral both structures are on the same side of midline e.g. left arm and left leg contralateral structures on opposite sides of midline e.g. right arm and left leg medial structures close to the midline e.g. my heart is medial to my arms lateral structures away from midline e.g. my ears are lateral to my nose In reference to limbs proximal close to the center e.g. my shoulders are proximal relative to my elbows distal far away from the centre e.g. my toes are distal relative to my knees representing images on 2-D paper coronal aka frontal sections divide front from back sagittal parallel to midline gives side view of brain structures midsagittal section divides brain into 2 equal halves horizontal/axial divides brain from top to bottom Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System babies skull bones are not fused completely until 18 months of age skull bones overlap each other kind of like tectonic plates you can often see a pulse at the top of the head between the skull bones (known as a soft spot or fontanel) Meninges layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and peripheral nerves 3 layers dura mater means "hard mother" outermost layer leather-like tissue that outlines skull arachnoid layer only found in central nervous system, not peripheral middle layer spider-web cross-sections subarachnoid space in between arachnoid layer and pia matter filled with cerebraspinal fluid only found in central nervous system, not peripheral peripheral nervous system (nerves that exit the brain and spinal cord) meningitis infection of the meninges through a virus or bacteria meningiomas tumours that arise in tissues of the meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid pg. 31 plasmalike fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord and subarachnoid place secreted into ventricles one of 4 hollow spaces within brain that contains cerebrospinal fluid choroid plexus lines the ventricles converts nearby blood supply into cerebrospinal fluid and secretes it into the ventricles purposes: floats the brain in the skull acts like a cushion to soften blows prevents neurone from responding to pressure and providing false information pressure causes the neurone to react (sometimes in maladaptive ways e.g. seizure) central canal small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains CSF circulation CSF flows from lateral ventricles to 3rd and 4th ventricles into the central canal of the spinal cord in the 4th ventricle, there is a small opening that allows some of the CSF to go into the subarachnoid space new CSF is constantly being made, supply is turned over 3/per day old CSF is reabsorbed into blood supply at the top of the head hydrocephalus means water on the brain when normal circulation of CSF is blocked can cause mental retardation and prevents normal growth of the brain in children treated: installation of a shunt to drain excess fluid surgery CSF never had direct contact with blood supply, has a separate circulation system composition is important to diagnosing diseases (spinal tap) Blood supply brain receives nutrients through carotid arteries travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain vertebral arteries enter the brain from the back of the skull once inside the skull, these arteries branch to form: anterior cerebral arteries middle cerebral arteries posterior cerebral arteries significant brain damage occurs less than 3 minutes after the heart stops pumping Central Nervous System the brain and spinal cord Differences between CNS and PNS tissues of CNS is encased in bone while PNS is not damage to CNS is considered permanent, but recovery may occur in PNS CNS covered with 3 layers of membranes, PNS with 2 Spinal Cord long cylinder of nervous tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra (or vertebral column-bones of spinalcolumn that protect and enclose the spinal cord) running down the centre is the central canal weighs 2% as much as the brain Spinal nerve exit between bones of vertebral column bones cushioned from one another with disks, if the disks degenerate, pressure is exerted on adjacent spinal nerves creating a painful pinched nerve Anatomy of the spinal cord (total 31 segments) cervical nerves 8 serve the head, neck and arms cervical collar (neck brace after whiplash) thoracic nerves 12 torso thoracic surgeon: specializes in operations involving the chest e.g. heart or lung lumbar nerves 5 lower back and legs if have lower back pain: have lumbar problems sacral nerves 5 back of the legs and genitals coccygeal nerves 1 most caudal of spinal nerves Horizontal view of spine white matter area of neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons made up of nerve fivers called axons (carry signals to other neurone) looks white because of fatty myeline that covers the axons gray butterfly in center of the cord: gray matter primarily made up of cell bodies fray because the cell bodies absorb chemicals used to preserve the tissue, staining them tray dorsal horns gray matter in spinal cord that contains sensory neurons ventral hor
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