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PSYB64 Lecture 1.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB64 Lecture 1 “Introducing Biological psychology” Biological Psychology as an Interdisciplinary Field  Biological psychology ◦ “the branch of psychology that studies the biological foundation of behavior, emotions, and mental processes” – (Pickett, 2000) ◦ behavior- could be in many levels; things we could observe  Draws on techniques and theories from psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the neurosciences, and related fields How Biological Psychology Relates to Other Fields of Study Historical Highlights in Biological Psychology  Prehistoric Brain surgery o Holes drilled in brains aka trepanasion- missing part of skull  Thought that drilling a hole was letting demons escape  The reflex according to Descartes o When a person puts their foot in the fire, many things occur by which causes the brain to have a reflex to withdraw foot from fire  Phrenology bust o Personality, traits, have a specific area in the brain o These aspects can be localized in the brain  There are more in the book, look into it Anatomically, women and men differ in size  Women have thicker corpus collosum  The symmetry between both differ  Hypothalamus with their nuclei differ  In some animal species every individual is female. In some others, they can change sex during their lifetime Research Methods in Biological Psychology  Histology ◦ The study of microscopic structures and tissues ◦ Ex: taking pieces of brains in small tissues and study ◦ Provides means for observing structure, organization, and connections of individual cells ◦ Microtome machine and specialized stains ◦ All 3 images show picture of a cell  It is interesting that out of all the cells within a picture, only 1 of a few thousand is stained. If all were stained, then the picture is jet black  Picture 2 – purple  Can see different layers  Different densities  Use stains to see overall health of tissue  Last image  Can see synapses between 2 cells, and see their communication between both.  Autopsy ◦ Examination of the body after death ◦ When talking about autopsy, we discuss about correlational method that must be interpreted carefully and precisely  Correlational method  Association between 1 and the other, but correlation is not causation.  There’s a relationship  Image below ◦ Horseradish is a chemical used to stain cells ◦ Aka HRP ◦ Horseradish Peroxidase Provides a Method for Identifying Neural Pathways Research Methods in Biological Psychology Imaging ◦ Can watch living brain as it behaves ◦ Types of imaging technologies  Computerized Tomography (CT)  Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)  Functional MRI (fMRI)  CT scans  PET Scans show patterns of brain activation ◦ Img are not clear ◦ You see diff areas of activation but cannot locate exactly where  fMRI tracks cerebral blood flows ◦ makes up for lack of clarity PET scans ◦ take measurement of blood flow  more blood flow= more activate ◦ allow you see structures ◦ show anatomy but no activity level ◦ visual form of mind reading  Research Methods in Biological Psychology  Recording  MEG  Brain stimulation  Lesion Recording ◦ Record electrical and magnetic output from the brain ◦ Electroencephalogram
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