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PSYB64 Lecture 2.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB64 Lecture 2 THE ANATOMY AND EVOLUTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM  Anatomical Directions and Planes of Section  Protecting and Supplying the NS  The CNS  The PNS  Evolution of the Brain and Nervous System Anatomical Directions  Rostral or anterior  Head end of four legged animal  Front of dog  Caudal or posterior  Tail end of four legged animal  Back end of dog – tail  Inferior or ventral  Towards the belly  Superior or dorsal  Towards the back when looking at the brain, dorsal is a the top, forehead part of the brain is the rostral or anterior, caudal is the back of the brain and ventral is the brain facing the ground. Spine - because the spine is at a 90 degree angle, its different - our spine where the back is = dorsal or superior - front of spine where heart is= ventral or inferior - bottom of spine where bum = caudal or posterior - and top of spine is the rostal Three Customary Orientations for Viewing the Brain and Body Coronal plane - cutting the brain like cutting bread - dorsal to ventral Horizontal plane - cutting the brain like cutting garlic bread to put whatever in the middle - rostral to caudal saggital plane - like cutting a hot dog bun in half Protecting and Supplying the Nervous System  Meninges  Three layers of meninges provide protection  Cerebrospinal Fluid  Secreted in hollow spaces in the brain known as ventricles  Circulates through ventricles, subarachnoid space, and central canal of the spinal cord  Blood Supply  Brain receives nutrients through the carotid arteries and vertebral arteries The Skull and Three Layers of Membrane Protect the Brain Dura mater= blue region Pia matter= purple, very light, follows like Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulates Through the Ventricles, Spinal Cord and Subarachnoid Space The Ventricular System  Abnormalities  Video  7. Brain Anomaly and Plasticity: Hydrocephalus  The Brain Has a Generous Supply of Blood The Organization of the Nervous System Divisions of the Nervous System Overview of the CNS  The Spinal Cord  Extends from medulla to first lumbar vertebra  The Hindbrain  Myelencephalon (medulla)  Metencephalon (pons and cerebellum) o The Midbrain  Mesencephalon o The Forebrain  Diencephalon, Telencephalon The Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Spinal cord extends from medulla to the first lumbar vertebrae HINDBRAIN Structures of the Brain Stem o Myelencephalon (medulla) o Metencephalon (pons + cerebellum) THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE MIDBRAIN Visual Information Processing Auditory Information processing SOME IMPORTANT STRUCTURES OF THE BRAINSTEM • RETICULAR FORMATION • Sleep and arousal • Temperature regulation • Motor control • MEDULLA • Regulation of breathing and heart rate • Tissue damage in this area often fatal • FOREBRAIN  The Thalamus and Hypothalamus of the Diencephalon  The Basal Ganglia  The Limbic System  The Cortex  Lobes of the cortex  Localization of function in the cortex
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