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Lecture 5

PSYB54 Lecture 5.docx

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Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYB54 Lecture 5 “psychpharmacology, genetics, and development” BASIC PRINCIPLES OF DRUG EFFECTS • Administration of Drugs Method of administration leads to different effects on nervous system Blood-brain barrier • Individual Differences Drug effects influenced by body weight, gender, and genetics • Placebo Effects User expectations influence drug effects Double-blind experiment Concentration of a Drug in the Blood Supply Depends on the Method of Administration Video: Nicotine, smoking, and genetics ALCOHOL AND HERBAL REMEDIES  Alcohol Agonist at the GABA Aeceptor Stimulates dopaminergic reward pathways Damaging effects on health  St. John’s Wort Often herbal remedies are chosen as opposed to prescription medicines by individuals Effective for mild depression Acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor Interactions with other drugs Can be negative interactions with chemotherapy OVERVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS OF BRAIN DEVELOPMENT Neural Tube Defects Anencephaly  Significant portions of the brain and skull fail to develop  Occurs when rostral neural tube does not develop properly  Most fetuses either die in utero or survive briefly Spinal bifida  Caudal portion of the neural tube fails to close normally  Surgery within 24 hours of birth to correct  Most children experience paralysis of the lower limbs Causes of neural tube defects  Exact causes unknown but deficiencies in folic acid might be responsible for a large number of cases  Average diet does not have sufficient levels of folic acid to effectively prevent neural tube deficits. Genetic Disorders Down syndrome  Trisomy 21 characterized by 3 copies of chromosome 21  Usually function in the moderately retarded range of intellect with IQs between 35 and 50  Correlated with a high risk of AD Fragile-X syndrome  normally the FMR-1 gene on the X chromosome has 6-50 codon repeats  More than 200 CGG repeats at the fragile site leads to Fragile X  Intellectual consequences vary  abnormal facial appearance, large forehead and jaw PKU  Environmental Toxins Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)  grossly malformed brains
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