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Lecture 8

PSYB64 Lecture 8.docx

8 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Elizabeth Page- Gould

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Description
PSYB64 Lecture 8 “Sleep and waking” 1. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS 2. STAGES OF WAKEFULNESS & SLEEP 3. SLEEP OVER THE LIFESPAN 4. DREAMING 5. FUNCTIONS OF SLEEP 6. BRAIN MECHANISMS OF WAKEFULNESS & SLEEP 7. BIOCHEMISTRY OF WAKEFULNESS & SLEEP 8. SLEEP DISORDERS 1. CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS  Zeitgebers Any external cue that synchronizes an organism’s internal clock  Variations in Sleep Patterns Night owls versus larks Melatonin drops at onset of puberty  Shift Work, Jet Lag, and Daylight Saving Time Shift maladaptation syndrome Easier to adjust to a phase-delay than a phase-advance  Shift Work, Jet Lag, and Daylight Saving Time Shift maladaptation syndrome http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qCwJLIM91VM&feature=channel Easier to adjust to a phase-delay than a phase-advance Daylight saving time in spring requires a phase advance, and can produce symptoms similar to jet lag. The time change in fall is equivalent to a phase delay, and causes little disruption for most people. Circadian Rhythms SCN close to optic nerves providing information on light and to pituitary and pineal glands to influence behaviour through release of hormones SCN close to optic nerves providing information on light and to pituitary and pineal glands to influence behaviour through release of hormones The SCN IS ACTIVE DURING THE DAY SCN perceives the difference between day and night but does not dictate whether an animal is nocturnal or diurnal in its behavior Suprachiasmatic Nucleus is the Master Pacemaker 1. Lesions of suprachiasmatic nucleus abolish free-running rhythms 2. Activity in suprachiasmatic nucleus correlates with circadian rhythms 3. Isolated suprachiasmatic nucleus continues to cycle 4. Transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus imparts rhythm of the donor  The Cellular Basis of Circadian Rhythms Per, Tim, and Clock (genes and their protein products) Watch video  Biochemistry and Circadian Rhythms Melatonin SCN regulates and responds to this hormone secreted by pineal body Cortisol This hormone also fluctuates with patterns of waking and sleeping Also secreted during times of stress Stress-induced high cortisol levels during the night are correlated with poor sleep quality Cycles of Protein Production and Degradation Form the Basis of the Cellular Clock in Fruit Flies  Seasonal Affective Disorder Type of depression associated with reduction in daylight hours during winter months Exact cause unknown but serotonin levels decrease during the winter and affected individuals may be more susceptible in this reduction Might also be influenced by disruptions in melatonin Treatment with UV light therapy, melatonin, antidepressants Waking Up Teens: Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome 2. STAGES OF WAKEFULNESS & SLEEP  Wakefulness Alterations between Beta wave and alpha wave activity  Brain Activity During Sleep Alternating periods of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and Non-REM (NREM) sleep Stage 1 NREM– theta waves Stage 2 NREM– sleep spindles, K-complex Stage 3 NREM– some delta waves Stage 4 NREM– 50 % delta waves REM
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