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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 2

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Ted Petit

PSYB65 Lecture 2 -organization/structure of human brain -diff lobes of cerebral cortex – most complex -in reality most of the time you will be dealing with CC -there is inner structure to the brain, ventricles -meninges; coverings of the brain -slide 1; basic structure of the brain -human brain is not smooth; brains of other animals are smooth, but our skulls are not big enough for our skull to be smooth, the brain as it develops runs out of space and so it folds in upon itself -this forms little mountains and valleys; we gave names to the mountains and valleys -sulci pl. sulcus s. – these are the valleys -if it is a major one/large it is a fissure -mountains are known as gyrus s., gyri pl. Organization -brain is divided down the centre; right half and left half, 2 hemispheres -2 sides of the body are not exactly the same, this is true for the brain too -right hemisphere, and left hemisphere -often say left brain and right brain, same thing -right hemisphere receives info from left hand side of body, and controls left hand side of the body -each side of the brain controls and receives info from the other side of the body -separated by the longitudinal fissure; very large sulcus that divides the right and the left -they are connected to each other; the connecting pathway is the carpos callosum -this fiber pathway connects the parts of the left with the adjacent parts on the right -there are 3 main sulci -1- longitudinal fissure; separates 2 hemispheres -2- central sulcus; aka central fissure – separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe – anterior and posterior portions of the brain -3- sylvian fissure aka lateral; ruins up side of the brain and separates the temporal lobe -CC is divided into 4 lobes -each hemisphere has the same 4 lobes, identical on both sides of the brain -frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal -each lobe has a main primary function -within each lobe there are 2 types of cortex/tissue -they are known as primary cortex and associational cortex -primary cortex is resp for performing some basic input/output function -it is the area that is resp for the primary input/output function of that lobe -any nervous system gets info from body and outputs info 1 -4 lobes each have a function -primary receptive area in each lobe; where most basic responsibilities of the lobe are performed -associational cortex; involved in higher order functions -more recently evolved -less developed animals have mainly a primary cortex; to perceive and then respond, very small associational -associational is more thought process involved areas; more evolved thinking there is a larger associational cortex -humans have large associational and small primary -Brodmann; put number of diff areas of the brain and used this as a map of the brain -put the number on, was able to pin point specific regions of the brain that were really important The 4 Lobes -Frontal lobe; begins in the anterior portion of the brain, goes back to central sulcus -primary function; involved in motor control/movement -this is what makes you move, your muscles -planning and inhibition of inappropriate behaviors -planning movement, long-term planning, etc – not just movement itself, but planning of the movement, planning of your life, inhibition of behaviors, etc. -4 and 6 are Brodmann’s area; primary area in motor cortex aka pre-central gyrus -central sulcus; right in front of this is the pre-frontal gyrus -precentral gyrus is primary cortex; every thing in front of this is the associational cortex -primary motor strip is where movement is produced; the area in front of this is where you would decide I am going to med school, etc -slide 5; shows primary and associational -primary strip is not just randomly organized; there is a motor homunculus- if we take a slice through the middle of the strip shows what neurons control what parts of the body -Parietal lobe; anterior boundary is central sulcus, and moves back until it hits occipital cortex -primary function is to receive info from non-specialized senses; receives info form somatosensory (from body, not smell, taste etc.) -post central gyrus; this is the primary strip for the parietal lobe -areas 3, 1, 2 is the primary somatosensory strip -somatosensory strip also ha
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