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Lecture 1-4 detailed notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 1 Parts of the Brain: Hindbrain Cerebellum: sensory-motor intergration, ability to balance stand up on 2 legs, manoeuvre forward, when damaged resemble drunk person in movements, constantly taking sensory input, stand erect Medulla: basic life process (heart-rate, breathing), if tumour there: fatal. Midbrain: Reticular Formation: involved in sleep-wakefulness cycles, if damaged: dont wake up (coma) Forebrain: most of the human brain Thalamus: major relay centre particularly in humans and higher mammals because we have huge neocortex. Info from every sensory parts of the body goes to thalamus and is relayed to appropriate section of neocortex. Some processing of info occurs but most of it happens in the cortex. Hypothalamus: Fun stuff. Keeps species alive. Thirst, hunger, territoriality, sexual behaviour. 4 Fs. Drugs that feel good stimulates that area. Limbic system: emotions and emotionality. Almost everyone agrees that the amygdala, hippocampus, (hypothalamus partially involved), are involved is this system. Allows animal feel emotion. Cerebral Cortex: most anterior sector, curves back and looks like it is everything in the brain. Also known as neo-cortex. Higher brain function. Comprises most of human brain. Involves in things like speech, reasoning, info processing, planning. Evolution of our brain: ability to get info from environment important and affects survival. Those animals that developed nuclei which could process more information from environment had greater chance of survival (visual) and became larger. This occurred in the anterior section of the nervous system (bumps). Those organisms that developed more nuclei survived. We have developed cerebral cortex. We dont have larger cortex but based on body weight, were 2 (dolphins are first). Size of structure directly related to importance of use and function of that particular specie (eg. Rats have big olfactory bulb because they rely on sense of smell)
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