- Alexia – problems or deficits in reading
- Agraphia – problem in writing
- Majority of language is associated with hearing
- 3 basic things that can happen with language: input, integration and
- Many different kinds of aphasia and in hospital settings the way to
differentiate between them is to ask the patients functional questions
(identify objects)/or obey commands to see what the problem is and
eliminate what they’re not suffering from.
Receptive Aphasias: problems in receiving language or having language come in.
- Pure-word deafness:
• Problems in relating incoming sounds into representations which allow the
understanding of discourse (something that sounds like language)
• Can hear sounds but can’t distinguish language.
• Usually involves some sort of stroke in the dorsal portion of the temporal
lobe near the primary auditory center
- What can they do?
• Normal ability to read, write and speak
• Can’t repeat what is said
• Can’t obey commands
• They can still read/write/speak because the fundamentals of language
processing are still intact (Wernicke’s area) if language can be inputted
another way they can still process it.
• Deafness implies that they can’t understand what they hear. So the
problem is in deciphering what they are hearing.
• Verbal commands can’t be followed because they don’t understand you
unless it’s written down.
- When they speak out loud can they understand themselves?
• Depends on severity of the stroke.
• When the part of the brain that performs a certain function is gone results
in the loss of awareness of that function when one performs that function
themselves (e.g. being able to hear yourself speak when you have pure-
• If you can get info in some other way besides the ears it could still be
processed and understood. Bypassing input means info can still be
Integrative Aphasias: Involves problems in selecting and arranging meaningful
units and their eventual conversion into comprehensible coherent speech.
Problems integrating and putting together the fundamentals of information.
- Wernicke’s aphasia/Jargon aphasia:
• These people make unintelligible statements. Often they will chatter for
long periods of time without making any sense, in most severe cases.
• It’s not complete word-salad, it sounds like it makes sense but it doesn’t
because it doesn’t contain content words. Has the tonal trait of language. • Musical qualities of language (intonation and rhythm) are intact because
RH is intact.
• It can be mistaken for a foreign language, at severe cases.
• Usually it’s in language that they speak, but sometimes it’s in gibberish.
Sounds like language but in fact it’s nothing like it. Severity of symptoms
depends on severity of damage.
- What can they do?
• In milder cases: cannot name an object well, but is usually close enough.
Sort of know what they’re trying to get at. A word that relates to the
object. Within the same classification or sounds like it. Sounds similar or
• They use objects appropriately. Object functionality and use is still intact
because it is not relevant to language.
• Responds to commands poorly but cannot comprehend language.
• Cannot repeat. In milder cases, they can but only if it is an over-rehearsed,
short, familiar, quips (commonly said e.g. good morning).
• They can sing but they add in things that were not there before.
• Intellect is low. Reading is generally little evidence of comprehension of
written material. Can read aloud well but don’t understand what it means.
Can write but it’s usually the same jargon that they speak. Writing doesn’t
make sense, it’s the same crazy stuff that they are saying.
• They don’t seem to worry that they cannot speak properly; not depressed
- Nominal aphasia/Anomia:
• Involves difficulties/inability to name things. Occurs with damage in the
• Will identify objects using a word that sounds similar. (e.g. show them a
comb, they say it’s a camel)
• Circumlocution is talking around things. They try to