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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 8

Lecture 8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture8, November 8 2010 DEPRESSANTS: Aka SEDATIVE HYPNOTICS  Causes cortex to go into a more relaxed state  There are 3 major categories:  BARBITURATE  Work through GABA. Primary inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter. When GABA is increased, then you slow things down. Barbiturates works by binding to GABA receptors, and this decreases activity in the brain.  It is also synergistic with other depressants: sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytic drugs (take away anxiety) and anticonvulsants. Synergistic means that if you put them together their effects are additive/multiply the effects of each other.  Prescribed to help old people sleep, the problem is that when they don’t go through enough RIM sleepso person is still a little tired and groggy  Withdrawal: the brain will become hyper excitable, which can lead to death because of seizures(for people who have been on it for a long time)  Alcohol will stop the withdrawal symptoms for barbiturates  NONBARBITURATES  ALCOHOL  A CNS depressant; Made by yeast that digest sugar and excrete alcohol  Causes more problems than any other drug in society  Largest number of admissions to mental hospitals, 20-40%  Accounts for 55% of all arrests; 50-75% of all homicides the person was drinking  50% of all driver deaths was because of alcohol; 20-30% of all suicides  The U.S. passed the law of that people can’t manufacture alcohol or buy alcohol from January of 1920 to December 1933  All the bad things did go away, for a little while, but it didn’t last long  By 1930: they went back to right where they were before the prohibition, HOW? because people were drinking again  If humans want something, they found ways to get it. New problems: when something is made illegallyyou wind up with a product that is not clean and has effects on the consumer. Now: there is ethyl alcohol, if it’s not then there is methyl alcohol which causes blindness  Lots of deaths occur because of mixing of two drugs or because of something in that drug  Chemistry and metabolism: it is absorbed directly through the stomach wall, it doesn’t need to be broken down, and it is one of the fastest sources of energy. It contains 200calories per ounce of alcohol. Its metabolic pathway: it cannot be stored as fat, so the body uses the alcohol calories more than the pizza. It decreases ADH(anti-diuretic hormone) which causes you to excrete more fluids and it causes dehydration  Hangovers are caused by alcohols that are older, things that have colour(wine)  CNS affects: it works through GABA receptor activity, it may also affect metabolism, it changes membrane excitability  Behavioural affects depends on the dose level: 1-2 drinks cause an excitation rather than a depressant stage on the EEGhow can that happen?  it appears that it causes that in low amounts it depresses inhibitory centers in the brain stem, therefore the rest of the brain is allowed to be more active, as a person drinks more, it starts inhibiting the whole brain, it low levels of alcohol allows people to work better on tests (driving tests) and decreases the reaction time  At higher levels: it depresses the cortex, and if you keep drinking, it will depress activity in the medulla, and it depresses breathing, your body reacts to it and makes you throw up, there is a certain amount of alcohol which makes you throw up  Chronic long time heavy drinkers causes: atrophy of the brain: occurs in the cerebellum and cortex, and you can see it in a CAT scan  Withdrawal: you get hallucina
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