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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 11

Lecture 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

 whenever we are talking about the frontal lobe we are talking about the pre-frontal lobe specifically  in Gall’s phrenology, it was believed that intelligence as in the anterior part of the brain  Jacobson tested the idea of intelligence in the pre-frontal lobe by removing this part in monkeys, he noticed they had a problem in delayed response tasks, tested them in a WGTA which is just like the Skinner box for mice  Also monkeys with pre-frontal damage are easily distracted and forgetful, when placing a banana outside of a monkeys cage they would look for a tool to be able to get the banana but once they found a tool they would forget about the banana (delayed response task)  Jacobson thought this was a problem in short term memory but it wasn’t that simple, he tested them in different conditions and noticed that in the dark and when sedated they would be able to perform these tasks, and that these monkeys lacked plasticity and were not able to change choices of which cup had food inside  Jacobson talked about one monkey that did not react well to being tested , throwing temper tantrums before even getting tested , after frontal lobotomy the monkey became calm and easily tested  another scientist named Moniz decided to try this on humans(removing frontal lobe), surprisingly all 20 humans survived and 7 of them recovered and 7 of them improved, the best results was with depressed patients, he stopped this in 1994 because one of his patients became paralyzed  other surgeons like Freeman and Watts brought this technique to north America, operated on nearly 3500 patients, 18% patients developed epilepsy because of scarred tissue  people with frontal lobe problems do fine on I.Q tests meaning that intelligence has nothing to do with the frontal lobe, however they had problem I changing inappropriate behavior  Wisconsin card sort test is like using playing cards and having to sort them out whichever way you want and tell the person they are correct 10 times and then switch it without telling them, after
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