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PSYB65 Lecture 1

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 Human Brain & Behaviour Lecture 1 –Introduction, overview of CNS organization, anatomy, development and evolution (Chapters 1, 12, 13) Monday, September 10, 2012 How the Nervous System Works  Divide into 2 major components: o CENTRAL: consists of the spinal cord and brain (CNS) o PERIPHRAL: all the othernerves; brings info from the outside to the brain, nerves from the spinal cord and brain that go all over the body (PNS)  The spine goes up to the brain; its continuous to the base of the brain Simplified Version of the Vertebrate Animal’s Brain  The brain can be divided into 3 parts: forebrain, midbrain, and hind brain 1. Hindbrain:  The base of the brain is pretty small, it’s like a “stem” which is called the “brain stem”  Composed of 2 major things: o Cerebellum:  Involved with sensory motor integration = take information from your sensory from the body and linking it together with motor information  It allows you to stand up on two feet, gives you balance, keeps you from falling, most of us don’t stagger because the cerebellum keeps us up/erect…(it’s very complicated), it’s pretty rare for animals to stand; drunk people have depressed cerebellum (see image 6) o Medulla  basic life processes  like the heart rate, respiration, keeps you alive at the basic level (heartbeat and respiration), BAD to have a stroke or tumour there, the medulla is VERY critical to keep you living  core of the hind brain 2. Midbrain:  Involves the reticular formation o Controls sleep/wakefulness cycles/ circadian rhythm o If damaged: sleep and coma, sleep/wakefulness function stops 3. Forebrain:  huge in humans,  The central part is thalamus o A relay centre in humans and larger mammals; info from all over the body and the spinals cord  Below the thalamus is the hypothalamus (hypo=under). o Life functions in a more complex way o Like hormones, keeps the species alive. o Controls: thirst, hunger, territoriality and sexual behaviour. o Controls anything that feels good ie: sex If it feels good, its controlled by the hypothalamus o The four Fs: finding, fiending, feeding and sexual reproduction Limbic System   Interconnectedness of brain structures revolved around emotion and emotionality  Composed of: o AMYGDALA: controls emotion, such as aggression o HIPPOCAMPUS: also deals with emotions, and feels emotions…being happy, angry falling in love….dogs have a large limbic system. Cerebral Cortex  Most anterior structure (very front of the brain, it curves back)  Also known as ‘neocortex’, ‘neo’ meaning new  The cortex is involved in HIGHER brain functions  It is most of the human brain  It involves: speech, inte
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