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Lecture 10

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 10 Neuropsychology of brain damage and Language; The Aphasias The bigger the stroke, the larger the area damaged, the more sever the result is going to be. Vary from patient to patient APHASIA  Ask people what things to find out if they have language expressing language  Also ask them to obey commands to see if they can understand language comprehend language  Ask them to read and to write  Asking them to repeat much easier than making up language yourself  Receptive Aphasia o Basic understanding of the language (RECEIVING language) o Posterior part of the temporal lobe o PURE WORD DEAFNESS  Problems in relating incoming sounds into representations which allow the understanding of discourse when you hear a sound, does it mean anything to you, can you comprehend them; taking that incoming sound and decoding it to mean something  They can hear sounds but cannot distinguish it has language  They are not deaf  Caused from damages in the primary receptive area in the temporal lobe  Normal ability to read getting information in VISUALLY  Their problem is breaking down sounds that is auditory  They can also write and also speak  No problem with language if you can get in the input in anyway but auditory  Integrative Aphasia o Comprehension of language as well as the formation of the language o Problems in selecting and arranging meaningful units and their eventual conversion into comprehensible coherent speech o Wernicke’s area o WERNICKE’S APHASIA  Also referred to as Jargon’s aphasia  The person does not make any sense  People make unintelligible statements  They usually cannot name objects but although it is close; example: comb, hair  Take objects and utensils normally even though they cannot name it they can use it  They respond very poorly to commands  They cannot repeat what you say unless it a very short familiar remark  very very overused phrases like good morning, hello  IQ is low, make silly error; sometimes don’t understand what to do  They can sing, but usually invert passages or include extra lines the rhythm, harmony and tones of it but the lyrics are a problem  If you have them read aloud, they can read what id written, but don’t comprehend it.  They are not upset because they are not aware that they have lost it; they don’t miss it; no depression  In an average case  Chatter on without making any sense at all  It is language but it just does not make sense  It does not sound gibberish but has proper grammar and shit  Also has a harmony of the sentence pitch, tones that’s intact  In severe cases  May not even sound or be English  It sounds like a foreign language because they still have the musical part of language but isn’t language o NOMINAL APHASIA/ ANOMIA  You can’t name things  They often say something similar or sounds similar  May attempt circle locution talking around something but remember the name  Usually involves damage to the angular gyrus area where the temporal parietal and occipital lobes come together (posterior dorsal part of the temporal lobe)  The problem is with nouns and objects, verbs are perfectly fine; they can use the same word in a sent
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