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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 11

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Ted Petit

Lecture 11 FRONTAL LOBE DAMAGE (Prefrontal damage) o HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE o They thought that the front part of the brain is for intellectual functioning came from Gall Phrenology bumps on the head= origin of those emotions felt the skull o Gall thought intelligence was at the frontal portion of the brain o The first neuroscientist who tested this was Jacobson  Took some monkeys and removed the prefrontal area found that the monkeys had a problem in delayed response task with WGTA Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus  If these animals could see the solution to the problem and perform right away they could solve the problem  If there was a delay they could not perform  The monkeys would see the banana, try to reach for it, look for something and by the time they found something, they forgot why they needed the stick  Jacobson initially thought that this must be a loss in short term memory capacities  However, he later found out if they could perform in the dark were given tranquilizer they were able to perform the task probably distractibility or emotional phenomenon  They had problems in Alternations  Monkeys could not solve these kind of problems of alternations  Once they learned the first set of responses, they could not change it lack that plasticity  Jacobson went to a neurology conference and talked about this  One monkey in particular  Monkey did not react very well to get tested  She would more and more neurotic and uptight and throw temper tantrums  Eventually they couldn’t even make her go into the lab  After the frontal lobotomy became calm and relaxed  In audience was a neurosurgeon Moniz asked a question what would happen if they did it on humans with psychological disorders  Moniz decided to try it on humans began the history of prefrontal lobotomy in humans  Disconnect the prefrontal area from rest of the brain  The first report was written on 20 patients o All survived 7 recovered and 7 improved o Best results were with depressed patients  Major advancement in psychiatry  Moniz stopped performing lobotomies in 1944 because he was shot by one of his lobotomy patient  Freeman and Watts brought the technique to North America  Operated on 3500 patients  In total 40000 lobotomies in US alone  Scar tissue epilepsy 18% developed  Declined in the 50’s and 60’s o Frontal lobe damage in humans o INTELLIGENCE (IQ)  Normal scores on IQ tests; Gall and Jacobson was wrong o Problems in changing inappropriate behaviour  Measure it with Wisconsin Card Sort test  Set of cards but has little objects on it that can vary by either color, number or
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