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Lecture 11

Lecture 11.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 11: Frontal lobe damage (mostly the pre-frontal cortex): History: - frontal lobe lobotomy will cause massive frontal lobe syndrome because behaviour differences are relative to the amount of area - important for motor functions, planning motor movement, and being aware of what consequences occur due to actions - Gall believed that pre-frontal area is most important for intellectual functioning – size of forehead meant how smart you were  gall through phrenology (feeling skull) would determine where certain behaviours are located based on bumps on skull - first person to test theory was Jacobson – took some monkeys and removed the pre-frontal area (anterior portion of frontal lobe) and tested them found that they had a problem in delayed response abilities – tested them in WGTA (Wisconsin General Testing Apparatus), which theres a table and the monkey sits on one side and the experimenter on the other, and have two cups with different items inside  If the monkey could see the solution to the problem, they could perform well, but if there was a delay between seeing the solution and performing the test, they did not perform well - Also found that if a monkey in a cage with banana in front of a cage, just beyond their reach, the monkey will look to see if he can find a stick to pull the banana into the cage  animals with prefrontal damage would look for object, but by the time they found it, they had forgotten about the banana – delay between seeing the problem and seeing the solution to the problem - Jacobson believed that is was a problem with short term (immediate) memory capacity - when he tested them in diff conditions, like in the dark or gave them a tranquilizer, the animals could perform the task  thus wasn’t memory, but perhaps some emotional problem like distractibility - monkeys also had problems in alternation (test that we use in animals/humans, where one set of responses is correct, and then another set is correct – first the red is correct, then blue is correct) --> once they learned the first set of responses they could not change, lacked plasticity - Jacobson went to a neurology conference and talked about specific monkey that did not react well to being tested before the surgery (got upset/neurotic and throw temper tantrums, eventually even before they put her in the WGTA)  after the frontal lobotomy, she was much more calm and would be fine about performing the tests - Moniz was at the conference and wondered what it would be like to do it on humans that had psychiatric problems  he went back to his psychiatric hospital and performed pre-frontal lobotomys (removed prefrontal area)  wrote a report on 20 patients and reported that all had survived, 7 of them had recovered and another 7 had improved best results were with depressed patients  started whole wave of treating psychiatric patients by removing their frontal lobe  moniz stopped performing in 1944 because one of his patients shot him and paralyzed him -Freeman and Watts brought technique to north America; operated on 3500 patients  overall, performed about 40 000 prefrontal lobotomies in the US alone - individuals commonly got epilepsy (18%) because of scar tissue formation - continued until the 1950s, which is when we got drug therapies for psychiatric patients People with pre-frontal damage: - very common in younger individuals due to accidents - make normal scores on IQ tests (intelligence is not involved with pre-frontal lobe as once believed) - had problems in changing/inhibiting inappropriate behaviour – commonly measured by Wisconsin card sort test (cards that vary by either colour, number, or shape) however the individual decides to sort the cards, tell them they are right until they get 10 correct, after, you change what they have to sort it by (eg. Change from colour to number)  individuals with pre-frontal damage will not change their way of sorting despite it being wrong  can solve the problem intellectually, can tell you all the diff ways they can sort it, but once they start sorting it, they cannot change - individuals also have a dissociation between v
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