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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 9

PSYB65- Lecture 9.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65- Lecture 9  Lateralization of the brain  In adulthood, wounds to the left hemisphere, 100% of the patients will show some aphasic symptoms (some problems in language); approximately 30% of them showed some recovery, and interestingly enough these were either left handed or ambidextrous patients; the least amount of recovery was always in right handed people; this suggests that language is in the left hemisphere and that handedness somehow plays a role in this  Patients with damage to the right hemisphere, showed few language problems and it rarely leads to serious aphasia; the only people who did show any signs of aphasia were either left handed or ambidextrous and they showed good recovery from their language problems; right handed patients did not show any language problems associated with right hemisphere damage; this told us that right handed people had language in the left hemisphere, and for left handed people language is bilateral  In children under the age of 5, damage to either side has an equal probability of producing aphasic symptoms; in addition, 100% of them will show at least some recovery; it appears that all children have language on both sides; the developing brain is incredibly plastic  In acallosal adult patients (do not have a corpus callosum), they have language on both sides of their brain regardless of handedness  In children with early, extensive brain damage, they have language on the opposite hemisphere of the brain with damage; these children can recover very well and still develop speech  A theory developed by neuropsychologists suggests that you are born with both sides of your brain capable of language, but it appears that the left hemisphere (at least in right handed people) seems dominant (better equipped) at language; it seems to supress the right hemisphere from being involved in language; one of the primary regions for language function is the planum temporali (primary language area in the left hemisphere/temporal lobe); it is larger on the left hand side in humans (about a third larger); this was found to be also true in great apes, thus it was probably controlled by our genes; also see the same thing in left handed individuals and newborns (between the 10 and 31 weeks of gestation, it begins diverging in humans)  It is important to determine which
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