Class Notes (838,229)
Canada (510,777)
Psychology (7,812)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture

Psychopharmacology of Drug Action, Depressants, Opiates and Hallucinogens.docx

4 Pages
124 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychopharmacology of Drug Action, Depressants, Opiates and Hallucinogens Monday, November 12, 2012 1:03 PM  Depressants  Generally categorized into Barbiturates, Non-Barbiturates (everything else) and Alcohol  Barbiturates:  Classification of drugs usually used to help people sleep or relax  Work through GABA  GABA - Primary inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitter  Whenever you increase GABA, then you slow things down  Barbiturates bind to GABA -receptors in the brain  Tends to decrease excitability in the brain  Also synergistic with other sedatives/sedative hypnotics and anxiolytic drugs (Valium) as well as anticonvulsants  Synergistic - at the minimum , if you put them together they are additive - if you take a barbiturate and one beer -> equivalent to having 3 beers . (they multiply the effects of each other)  Used primarily to induce sleep  Biggest group they were used for was the elderly  Also causes a problem because people spend less time in REM sleep  Withdrawal - convulsions (seizures), (can administer other depressants to help them through the withdrawal e.g. alcohol)  When you take someone off a depressant you substitute another depressant  Alcohol  CNS depressant  Produced by yeast digesting sugar and excreting alcohol  Largest admissions to mental hospitals (40%)  Also accounts for 55% of all arrests  Accounts to 50-75% of all murders  50% of driver's deaths  20-30% of all suicides  January 1920-1933 test period - Prohibition  Initially there was a drop in all alcohol related problems  By 1930 all those numbers were right back up  Other problems as well (in addition)  Instead of making ethyl alcohol - they were making or contaminating batches with methyl alcohol  Methyl alcohol leads to permanent blindness or death  Eventually decided Prohibition wasn't worth it  Lesson - if people really want a drug, they will find a way to get it  Using education now rather than banning drugs  Physiology:  Metabolism - absorbed directly through the stomach wall right into blood stream  Very high source of energy - 200 cal/oz 7 cal/gram  Fastest sources of energy that we know of  Cannot enter any metabolic pathway whereby it cannot be converted into fat  Can also cause the brain to decrease ADH production  Causes you to excrete fluids  Can lead to dehydration  Does have some effect on GABA receptors - probably works on metabolism or through membrane excitability (might change the sodium crap thingy)  Probably a mixture of the three  Dose dependent :  Low doses (1-2 drinks) - causes a dis-inhibition of the cortex - arousal state. Seems to depress inhibitory centers in the brain stem  Increases firing rate in cortex  As the levels increase have a direct effect on the cortex (the cerebellum etc) - the CNS is depressed  From arousal state to a sloppy state  Eventually depression activity in the medulla  It can eventually kill you  Alcoholics -  Causes atrophy in the brain particularly in the dendrites in the cortex and cerebellum  Atrophy can be sufficiently bad that you can pick it up on a cat scan  Withdrawal: People with high level -  Hallucinations, tremors, convulsions or seizures and possibly death  As severe and likely to cause death as people coming off of heroin  Tolerance does increase (more enzymes in liver)  May be some brain mechanism but not certain Alcohol and Pregn
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit