Lecture three Notes:
Blockages, has different sources!
1)Cerebrovascular accidents (CVA): it is also used to refer to Stroke! Some sort of blockage in
vascular system of brain! Sever Interruption of the blood supply to the brain.
Ischemia => the brain is not receiving enough oxygen or glucose! ischemia is a result of Stroke
most likely! could have other causes!
Infarct: term that is use to refer to a dead tissue (in the brain, heart)
Example: The person had a Cerebrovascular accident which resulted in ischemia in a specific
part of the brain and as it is clear in the images, the ischemia has resulted in an infarct
The more major and crucial the area is, it is more clear that if that artery is blocked there is
going to be more profound damage to the brain! because it supplies more tissues of brain
2) Encephalomalacia: a situation where the blood supply loss happens very slowly! its different
from CVA which happens fast! this situation develops over time! looks like a deturiating tissues!
3)Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA): not enough oxygen going to the brain! constriction of blood
vessels in the brain! caused by muscles! most common symptom is vision problems.
Causes of those problems:
1)Thrombosis: is a locally formed blockage! like blood clothes! forms and restricts blood flow!
2)Embolism formed elsewhere in the body! migrates through blood supplies and then loges in
the brain! (like blood clothes being formed in leg and them loges in the brain or heart
3) Cerebral hemorrhage: is a massive bleeding into the brain itself! depends on where it occurs!
Bleeding inside the brain
4) Subdural Hematoma: blood vessel that breaks out side of the brain! between the brain and
skull! It creates a great deal of pressure on the brain! As it is clear it the picture! subdural
hematoma as created so much pressure on one of the ventricles that it has nearly made it
disappear! also it could kill the brain tissue! As long as you can get to it by time, you can stop the
bleeding. As you get old there is always the chance to get this kind of problem!
Angioma: collection of blood vessels! Large and abnormal! They are more prone to bursting and
Aneurism: Vascular dilation, expended blood vessel ! caused by localized problems in elasticity ,
could lead to stroke if the blood vessel burst! caused by weakling in the blood vessel (its the
swelling) and the pressure cause it to burst and can cause to Cerebral hemorrhage or subdural
hematoma. Closed head Injuries: caused by a blow to the head that does not actually break in to the brain
itself! normally when a tissue is damaged, it swells to fix it! now in the brain the skull does not
let it! the only way it can go is the exit point in the posterior portion of the brain! it could be
minor from concussion to major which causes death.
Turns out that one of the last steps before going to coma (when you have had a head injury
accident) is that the swelling in the brain is going to cut down Occulomotor Nerve which in