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Lecture 11

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Ted Petit

Lecture 11 Hippocampus/Temporal Lobe ablations: It can get damaged Sensitive to damage early in development What happens when you have to take it out Hippocampus/Temporal Lobe syndrome - the Hippocampus is located deep inside the temporal lobe To get to it, you have to get through the temporal lobe Basically: problem with memory Memory starts of as immediate/short term and will then be consolidated into long term memory Hippocampus is critical for consolidation Very vascular at birth Needs plenty of oxygen Damage = scar tissue = epilepsy Treat it with things like valium and barbiturates Too severe, then we will remove the area with the scar tissue Human speech and language - we need to know where hippocampus is We have to go in and remove the hippocampus: Special patient: H.M Removed both of the hippocampi HM was examined over decades - just recently died Sue Corckin - MIT, recording of HM Suffered from anterograde memory problems: From the time of surgery onward, he was unable to remember things He could only remember things that happened before the event. e.g. if they knew how to play chess before accident, they retain this knowledge Immediate memory is also okay - it just cannot be consolidated and stored Verbal tests: will NOT show any more learning from one day to the next Family member they knew before the surgery, they will recognize, but anybody new they do not really remember Some memories may be able to be stored: motor tasks, they may be able to learn Motor learning skills No verbal recognition that they learned it, but they will slowly get better at the task Clearly there was some memory being formed with motoric tests Also, you can show pictures that are incomplete May be a whole elephant They just show a bit of trunk and legs Finally more and more is complete - then they can get it As they continue to get drawings, they get better and better SO, some learning that is non-verbal can occur Insist that it is a new test but will show improvement Hand buzzer experiment Experimenter wears the hand buzzer and shakes the patient's hand The patient will not want to shake their hand They do not know why, but they will not shake Emotional memory has been stored but the verbal memory has not Thus, clearly, nonverbal memories are being stored Immediate memory is in tact They can repeat as many digits forward and backwards as normal people can Avg. person is about 7 They can hold it in their head as long as they do not get distracted, just like us Once it is pulled out of the immediate memory, it cannot be accessed Recent things: HM must related it to the past Cannot remember what he did recently, even that morning Frontal Lobe = Prefrontal Area Frontal Lobe and Temporal Lobe Other types of areas that can get damaged Neuropsychological approach Frontal Lobe: Historical Perspective What actually happens when you go into humans (Frontal Lobotomy) 2 major types of things that can happen Behaviours depends on WHERE the lesion is and HOW BIG it is Always relative to the amount of damage Frontal Lobotomy: Massive frontal lobe syndrome. Severe Car Accident: Small amount of damage to the frontal lobe. Mild Really talking about damage to the PREFRONTAL LOBE The most anterior portion of the brain Frontal lobe is important for motor functions and the associative areas that will plan motor movements that are even more anterior It was thought that the most anterior part was for intellectual functioning Gall: Phrenology: Feeling the skull and where there are bumps leads to info on where certain emotions are Gall said that intelligence must be at the front First neuroscientist to test this theory: Jacobson Took monkeys and he removed the prefrontal area What he found was that they had a problem in delayed response capacities. This was severely damaged WGTA: Wisconsin-General-Testing-Apparatus Used to test the monkeys Sort of the equivalent of a Skinner box Monkey sits on one side of the table, human sits on the other. There is a barrier between the two (curtain) Involved two cups, putting a raisin in one cup, and put a cover on it (some way to distinguish it) Raisin is in the green cup but not the red one If the monkey could see the experimenter put the raisin in the green cup (solution to problem) and then react, they could solve it However, if there was a delay between seeing solution and solving, they could not do it (could not perform) More natural environments: If you put the monkey in the cage and you put a banana in front of the cage, Just beyond their reach: Monkey will look around for a stick or something like that to see if he can pull the banana in Prefrontal Damage: The monkey will look around for a stick, but by the time they see it they forget what they wanted to use it for Delay: if they see the stick they will forget there is a banana, and if they see a banana they will forget there is a stick Delay between problem and solution to the problem, they could not complete task Jacobson: thought it was loss in immediate memory capacities Started testing in different conditions and found out it was not that simple Tested in the dark, or if he gave them a tranquilizer, the animals were able to perform the task Trying to figure out what was the problem by eliminating things Suggested it was not memory, just that they were distracted (an emotional problem) It was not a memory problem, it was more a distractibility problem Also had problems in alternation: One set of responses is at first correct, then another set of responses is correct Blue cup has raisin first, then the yellow Monkeys could NOT solve the problem when they have the prefrontal lesion, despite the fact normal ones could They could NOT change their pattern One set of responses ended up being the only response they would make Mirror into the future What is really famous: Jacobson went to a neurology conference and talked about this finding, especially one monkey This monkey did not react well to being tested, became more uptight with the more tests she got Monkey became more frustrated Throwing temper tantrums before they even got her into the WGTA He did the frontal lobotomy: The monkey then became very calm and was willing to go into the WGTA Jacobson talked about this result Trouble with alternation After the lesion ,the monkey became very calm. Emotionality Moniz: neurosurgeon in the audience I wonder what this would be like if we tried this on humans Jacobson horrified at this question Moniz was undaunted, went back
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