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Lecture 10

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Ted Petit

Lecture 10 Language Functioning Left hemisphere: Language Talking about language in greater detail Within the left hemisphere, how are things organized Language: most of information has historically been gathered from stroke victims, or victims of war. Modern times: it is much easier with the newer technology that also provides us with much more detail Today: What most neuropsychologist is main function of language in the left hemisphere Aphasia Mild Aphasia Sever Aphasia Alexia: Problems in reading Agraphia: Problems in writing Exact clinical picture depends on severity of symptoms which depends on the size of the stroke 5 tumors: obviously would be worse than just 1 Problems vary significantly from patient to patient Stroke/lesion/tumor might have been smaller or larger 3 Major Types of Aphasia 1. Receptive Aphasia: Receiving information on language Getting language in Decoding Hearing - majority of language is related to the audio portion Speech was long there before writing Vocal communication is more basic than reading and writing Temporal Lobe - Primary receptive area for sound Sensory Cortex Pure Word Deafness: Problems in relating incoming sounds into representations which allow for the understanding of discourse When you hear a sound, does it mean anything to you? Taking an incoming sounds and deciphering it into something that means something These people can hear sounds, but cannot distinguish it as deafness Brain damage to primary receptive area in Temporal Lobe Normal ability to read and write since information is coming in visually. Their problem is breaking down sounds They can also use speech The other essential parts of language are still in tact Listening to a voice, would be just noise. Think the problem could be with someone else 2. Integrative Aphasia Problems with comprehension of language Problems with formation of language Really understanding what language means and the ability to form language Processing things / cognitive decision Nuts and bolts Also decoded in Temporal Lobe, more specifically Wernicke's Area Problems in selecting and arranging meaningful units and their eventual conversion into comprehensible coherent, speech I. Wernicke's Aphasia: Also referred to Jargon Aphasia Person does not make any sense People make unintelligible statements They will chatter on and on without making any sense The problem is not with the talking, but just saying anything really coherent. Saying ridiculous, off topic things Dangle a pen in front of them: long blabber. It is English with proper grammar and harmony (tone) and sounds like it could be right (Professor-like speech) Wernicke's Area is at the temporal lobe near the Central Sulcus: the actual understanding of language happens here Very severe: it may not actually sound like English at all anymore Will not even be using English words in the most extreme case General Effects: Naming: Cannot do it well, but if not too severe it can be close (e.g. shown a comb they will say hair) Partially right Pointing: Respond very poorly to command Orders: Use objects normally. NOT a motor cortex problem. They know what things are and how to use them, but cannot name it Repeat: Unable to do it, unless it is a short familiar quip (e.g. good morning) Intellect: Generally down. No real comprehension of what they should be doing Singing: Music is still in tact (since it is in the right hemisphere) though some extra words may be added. Old songs (happy birthday) Reading: Very little comprehension of any of the written material. Read aloud they can do it quite well, but just do not understand it. Basic elements of language are gone, stuff is just coming out Writing: They can write, but it will still be the crazy off topic stuff they would have said verbally People themselves are not really upset. Like pets. They do not have language anymore, and that's just the way it is Humans are speech based organism - something essentially human is gone from person, but the person themselves does NOT miss it They cannot think in language either. No inner voice. All language is just gone No emotional problems in relation to the missing of language II. Nominal Aphasia: AKA Anomia Can you name it? Inability to name things Angular Gyrus has damage: Area where the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes come together Posterior dorsal portion of temporal lobe All of us have instances of this, but a person with anomia has it chronically Sometimes will say a word that sounds similar: show them a comb, they may say camel May also attempt circumlocution: talking around something . E.g. If you don't know an actress's name, you mention the movies she was in or who she is married to or her physical description Problem will be NOUNS, but VERBS will be perfectly fine Can use the same word in a sentence as a verb but cannot come up with noun. E.g. comb scenario: they say you use it to comb your hair, but do NOT say it is a comb Easier a word is, the easier it is to name (e.g. dog is easier than astronaut) Problems with abstraction: "People in glass houses shouldn't throw stones " if you say this to someone with anomia they do NOT understand what it really means Also problems with perseveration: Cannot come up with something, they will try to talk around but they may be stuck. Show them scisso
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