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PSYB65H3 (519)


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Zachariah Campbell

L3: DISORDERS OF THE BRAIN AND STRUCTURE OF THE NEURON MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS vascular problems blood supplies oxygen and glucose and other nutrients neurons cannot survive for more than a few mins without blood most critical thing is that ur losing oxygen most common: cerebo-vascular accident CVA, often referred to as a stroke: rapid onset of cardio-vascular accident (stoke is general term) fairly rapid very severe interruption in the blood flow can have different causes ischemia: an insufficient blood supply to the brain resulting in insufficient oxygen this results in an infarct: dead or dyeing tissue CVA ischemiainfarct (sequence of events) the larger the artery that is affected, the larger the effect, the larger the ischemia slower (days, weeks or years) vascular accident, incomplete blockage reducing blood supply this produces encephalomalacia instead of tissue dying suddenly, there is a softening of the tissue, not instant, not complete what causes these vascular problems 2 major mechanisms 1. thrombosis: a locally forming clot, obstruction, happening at the site 2. embolism: clot or other obstruction that has broken off from another site and migrated to the brain (both caused by high cholesterol level, diabetes, any other slow acting reduction in blood flow ex: arterio sclerosis: slow reduction of blood flow) thrombosisCVAischemiainfarct transient ischemic attack TIA: not uncommon with younger ppl, temporary reduction of blood flow in part of the brain cerebral hemmorhage: bursting of blood vessel, massive bleeding into tissue of brain itself most commonly caused from high blood pressure (sometimes considered a CVA also) some ppl would also call this a stroke, since it is a general term subdural hematoma: the blood vessel breaks outside the brain matter itself, usually underneath the dura mater has diff implications hasn’t actually done damage inside the brain figure in slides pressure on left side has pushed CSF all into right ventricle, putting amnt of pressure on both sides subdural hematomas can do damage by putting pressure on the brain u can sometimes remove pressure right away and prevent damage common in elderly from slight bump on the head angioma: collection of abnormal blood vessels congenital defect, born with it, they are messed up, can shunt blood, they are weak by nature and prone to bursting annurism: a weakening in the elasticity of the blood vessel weakness in the wall of the blood vessel starts to bulge and can explode causing cerebral hemmorhage or subdural… often results in stroke escalated by high blood pressure want it out of the brain immediately if found circle of willis can save u if blockage is on input but if on output of blood, can’t help u anymore closed head injuries- accidents much more common than open-head caused most by car accident most damage is to the front of the brain cuz that’s where it gets hit body is moving rapidly and skull comes to immediate stop, brain smashes into the skull always consider opposite side of brain as well for milder damage: contracue (?) effect brain tumors cancer, a mass of tissue that is independently growing the cells multiply like crazy as if they were back in development gliomas: made from glial cells can vary from slightly malignant to highly malignant account for about 45% of all tumours meningiomas: tomours of the meninges
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