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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

LEARNING & MEMORY: Prefrontal, Temporal, & Parietal Lobe Syndromes History Gall-phrenology (analyzing bumps on heads) -intelligence was thought to be in the front of head -Jakobson in 1930s tested phrenology (and idea that intelligence was in front of brain) by doing surgery in monkey -he trained them on some tasks using a WGTA- wisconson general testing apparatus (skinner box for monkeys) - monkey sits at table with 2 sunken cups and screen -he did prefrontal lobotomies to see if they would be dumber -the primary effect was a loss in delayed response capacities if there was a small delay between showing them where the prize was and allowing them to get it, they couldn’t do it (ie. delay b/w understanding how to solve and performance of sol’n) -[also, monkey, cage, stick problem (couldn’t do it)] -BUT, if he left animal in dark or sedated them, they COULD do it -therefore, suggested that problems with delayed response capacity was not a memory problem, rather an emotional distraction problem -ALSO, had problems with alternation (changing their set)-seemed unable to alternate behaviour (red/blue cup switch) -INTERESTINGLY, had a monkey who, before the lobotomy, was untestable b/c she didn’t like making errors and would freak out and have temper tantrums, BUT after lobotomy she became relaxed -Jakobson then presented this finding at a scientific meeting -in audience was Moniz, neuroscientist, suggested doing it on humans -Moniz then did frontal lobotomies on hysteric, psychiatric patients -it was done on 20 patients, -all survived, 7 recovered, 7 improved -best results were on depressed patients -Moniz was shot by patient 1944 and became paraplegic and couldn’t perform the surgery anymore -Freeman and Watz brought this surgical technique to North America -they operated on 3500 patients -estimated 40,000 lobotomies performed in US alone -18% of patients developed epilepsy within 10 yr period (Why? b/c the surgery creates SCAR TISSUE!) -lobotomies declined in 1950s b/c we started having pharmacological treatments Three Syndromes: Damage to Prefrontal Cortex (incl. prefrontal lobotomies): Symptoms -no change in intelligence/IQ (contrary to phrenology) -problems in changing inappropriate behaviour (alternation/perseveration) Wisconson Card Sorting Test (can sort by shape/colour/number) -tell them to sort them -whatever way they sort it, you say “correct” for 10 trials -then you change the criterion th th -you say “incorrect” for 11 and 12 trial etc. -normal patient will then switch strategy until they get it right -a patient with prefrontal damage will go through entire deck and NEVER change their strategy -in fact, there is a dissociation between verbal and motor behaviours (whether you test this using WCST or other means) -they can correctly
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