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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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John Campbell

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Lecture 3 Vascular(blood) supply brain:  What can go wrong? 1. Blockage of vascular supply/blood flow o Diff kinds of blockages  Cerebral vascular accident (CVA): also used to refer to a stroke, severe interruption of blood supply to brain. When this happens, results in ischemia (brain not receiving enough oxygen and glucose---infarct)…can happen fast(almost always) or slowly  Encephomalacia – blood supply loss is very slow, brain tissue softens/deteriorates, caused by slow blockages, associated with elderly (cause of some dementia)  TIA (transient ischemic attack) – temporarily, short lived, not enough oxygen going to brain, most often seen in migraines, constriction of muscles surrounding the blood vessels, mostly affects vision o What causes blockages?  Thrombosis – locally formed blockage, blood clots, when you get old people have problems with blood becoming thicker, more likely to form clots (sedentary)  Embolism – blockage formed elsewhere in body, breaks off and floats around arteries and then lodges in the brain (most common break off from the leg, travels through vascular supply, lodges in brain  causes CVA…or plaque blockages caused by cholesterol (arteriolosis) 2. Vessel Bursting: 1. Cerebral Hemorrhage (Massive bleeding) – Blood vessels burst, massive bleeding inside the brain,Can be fatal, depends on which artery it affects, kills brain tissue 2. Subdoral Hematoma – bleeding outside the brain, between dora and brain, no bleeding inside brain, puts great deal of pressure on the brain, squeezes cerebral spinal fluid from one ventricle to the other, treated by taking blood out, stop bleeding 3. Angioma – abnormal collection or mass of blood vessels, usually enlarged and abnormal, things people are born with, very fragile nature, more prone to strokes/bursting 4. Aneurism – vascular dilation, expanded blood vessel, caused by localized problems in elasticity, could lead to stroke if vessel bursts— leads to cerebral hemorrhage/subdural hematoma 3. Closed Head injuries (blow to head, that doesn’t break into brain itself) ii. Brain swells, minor  concussion
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