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chapter 7 psyb65

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

PSYB65 – CHPT 7 MEMORY Types of memories  Memory is not a unitary phenomenon  There are multiple memory systems What is memory?  Learning is relatively permanent change in behavior as a function of experience. o It’s when an organism demonstrate a change in behavior as a result of experience  Learning and memory is called “experience-dependent behavior” o These studied are mostly inferential, it’s not very possible to distinct between memory and learning since they both depend critically on each other  The best division of memory and learning o Learning: concerned with attending to the info and storing it for later use [consolidation] o Memory: concerned with retrieving the info from where it was stored [retrieval]  We need encoding, consolidation, and retrieval. Without any of these steps, we won’t have memory o Forgetting might actually serve an important function in your brain Sensory memory and short-term memory  Memory requires info that is fathered by the senses to perceive and encode  Turning on the light and staring at it, then quickly turning it off, you’ll still be able to see the light for a brief moment – this is known as sensory memory  These short term memories are called sensory memories or iconic memory for visual and echoic memory for sound-based o A tachistoscope allows stimuli to be presented for an extremely short period of time which helps with the studying of iconic memory  Sperling – researcher of iconic memory gave his participants 12 words to remember and they were able to remember about 3-4 letters. When he specified the row “top middle or bottom” the participants were still able to remember 3-4 letters. Since they were “reading” their decaying visual trace o if there’s a bright light that follow the letters, the bright light practically “erases” the memory, and there’s a decrease in the # of words able to be recalled o if there’s a delay of 500milliseconds, there will also be decrease in iconic memory  color motion and shape can be stored in iconic memory  both sides of the brain work equally well on this task  the advantage that the left side has in identifying letters/numbers has nothing to do with iconic memory  echoic memory has many of the same properties as iconic memory o the echoic memory trace is much stronger immediately after the perception of a sound o iconic and echoic memory share many features, the major difference being the modality of the stimulus  sensory memory is quickly converted to a more durable form of memory known as short-term memory  short term memory: responsible for holing info for periods beyond what can be stored by sensory memory, but its not permanent o it can be in any sensory modality – such as visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory or olfactory  differences between short-term visual memory and iconic memory o when participants were presented with 2 letters and asked if they were the same, for example: A and a, or B and a, if the letters were presented 2 seconds later, participants performed better, suggesting that their storage was now no longer iconic memory but short-term memory o even when the initial stimulus was followed by a distractors, it did not affect the performance of this task – since it was stored in short-term memory  difference between short-term auditory memory and echoic memory – illustrated by the double take effect o Research; participants were to repeat a passage out loud that was playing in their right ear and told to ignore the passage that was playing in the left ear. Participant did quite well only when they were told to repeat it shortly after they heard it  there is a limit on how much info the short-term memory can store, the short term memory could hold about 7 units, for ex: 5,7,3,5,9, 2, 0 but if we were to group them ex: (416) 223-4875 then we would be able to remember all 10 units. This is due to the chucking phenomenon, it appears that chunking information improves your ability to hold largest sets of info in short- term memory  short term memory is not permanent and it rapidly forgotten especially if there’s distraction o Brown-Peterson design – experimental design that tells the participant to remember 3 letters and 3 numbers, then they are told to count backwards from 100. After the count, they are still able to recall the letters but not the # o Retroactive interference: if inferred when the learning of new material interferes with the recall of previously learned material o Proactive interference: when new learning is disrupted by previously learned material, o Trace discrimination theory: short-term memories begin to degrade spontaneously over time and retrieval of stored info requires that the info be distinct from other pieces of stores info ex: letters were remembered since they were different Working memory:  Sensory memory – ranges from milliseconds to seconds  Short-term memory has a duration of only a few seconds o Once the information is replaced by newer information, retrieval of the older info is seriously impaired  Working-memory: contains info that is going to be acted on or used in some fashion, material does not have to come directly from the environment. It can manipulate info that is retrieved from long-term memory and does not require that the event be physically present. Unlike sensory memory and short-term memory  Info can be held in working memory for relatively long periods of time  Baddeley- working memory is responsible for controlling attention and supervising the two “slave” subsystems o Phonological loop and the visualspatial sketchpad. They’re used to manipulate different types of info  Phonological loop: manipulation of linguistics information  Vissuospatial sketchpad: manipulation of visuospatial info, such as mental imagery and spatial location o Much more is known about the phonological loop in comparison with the visuospatial sketchpad and the central executive. This is because the properties of the phonological loop is relative simple The phonological loop  It consists of at least 2 components o A phonological store and a controller for inner speech. (aka as articulatory control process) o It can hold linguistic info for no more than 2 seconds unless it’s refreshed by inner speech o The articulatory control process is used when non verbal info is converted into the phonological sounds of language, therefore producing inner speech. o These 2 components of the phonological loop work together o Technique to study the phonological loop is “dual-task paradigm” – participant is asked to perform 2 tasks at once to interfere with the phonological loop. One that is the primary task and the other is irrelevant which results in “articulatory suppression”  It results in a disruption in the performance of a primary task, since the phonological loop has a limited storage, and the irrelevant ask interrupts it by taking up its resources  It’s not due to divided attention but instead it’s the requirement of resources. o The storage of the phonological loop is limited by the # of sounds that a participant can make in a brief period of time  Greatest # of radical were remembered when they were combined to make a phonemes  It has to do with the sound and not just the word itself The visuospatial sketchpad  Is responsible for the manipulation of visuospatial images. o It’s composed of 2 subunits.  1. Responsible for mental imagery  2. Responsible for spatial information  Information help in VSSP can come from the environment or mental imagery  There is a limited storage, and the info in the store can be affected by the performance of a secondary, irrelevant task  Research: participants were easier at remembering the sentences that were easily imageable  Mental imagery does not require the visual system since people who are blind can also perform this task  The VSSP is involved with the storage and manipulation of spatial info, such as the location of objects in space  Having to perform a irrelevant spatial task but not a verbal one interferes with performance of the primary task  Working memory for spatial locations is separate from that of the imagery The central executive:  Responsible for controlling attention and supervising the 2 “slave” systems  Very little research was conducted re: central executive system o Because the definition/function of this system is very vague and because its hard to stud this system without involved one of both of the slave systems  The central executive system is able to switch between strategies to find the best solution for the problem  It’s able to allocate attention so that in some situations, more than 1 task can be done at one time  A supervisory attentional system is responsible for monitoring ongoing behavior and ensuring the correct outcome o Its required in situations in which the routine selection of actions might result in a bad outcome. o Its involved in the planning of actions and in producing multiple actions that are performed relatively independent of each other o Tests that are used to test supervisory attention  Hayling test: a participant is given a sentence with te last word missing they are asked finish the sentence meaningfully, and the second part is for them to finish the sentence in a way that makes no sense  the automatic and the inhibition conditions relies primarily on the central executive  Brixton test: series of plates on which 10 dots are presented. One of the dots is colored and moved from plate to plate over trials, the dot moves according to a simple rule and they are asked to predict where the dot will land next Where in the brain is working memory located?  Phonological loop is Broca’s area, and temporal lobe  VSPP is the parietal lobe  Central executive is the frontal lobe  Lesions of the Broca’s area results in Broca’s aphasia: a speech disturbance marked by serious difficulties with the production of speech, they have serious problems with phonological working memory tasks, especially when the delays are long o This impairment only for verbal materials, since it unimpairs tasks of visuospatial working memory  Lesions of the left posterior parietal areas produce deficits that are consistent with problems with the phonological stores  It results in a condition known as: conduction aphasia: inability to repeat back verbal material, even when the delay is short  Its specific to verbal material, since working memory for spatial pattern is unimpaired  VSSP has to do with increase right hemisphere activity. o Visuospatial memory activates the right dorsolateral prefrontal area, right premotor area and right supplementary motor areas  Central executive function: there is activation in frontal areas regardless if they activate the phonological loop or the VSSP o Tasks that need attention and inhibition activates the anterior cingulated cortex o Management of resources, such as dual-task performance activates frontal areas of the dorsolaterla prefrontal cortex and anterior cinfulate o Lesions of the frontal cortex is associated with problems in planning and other components o the central executive such as allocating resources in dual-ask paradigms Long term memory  Those that you can recall days, months and years after they were stored  There are no limitations to the capacity of long-term memories  Events that were stored in long-term memory can no longer be retrievable  Explicit memories: memories for events o Conscious recollection and can be verbally described  Implicit memories: memories of skills and habits o Not available for conscious manipulation are very difficult to describe verbally  H.M is the most studied man in psychology: after surgery for epilepsy requiring the bilateral removal
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