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chapter 9 psyb65

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Ted Petit

Psyb65 – chapter 9 Emotion Early views of emotions:  Emotions localized to various internal organs  Plato: head was for reason o Liver was for desire o Heart was for anger  Aristole: temperature change to change in emotion state o Difference between humans and non-humans o Emotions occurred when intellect was engaged o Passion more instinctive What is emotion?  Private events, its described by others and inferred by others  Emotions have 2 components: o 1) physical sensation of emotion o 2) cognitive experience (feeling)  Humans self-monitor subjective cognitive states that’s why emotions are rarely mistaken for each other  Emotion states produce behavior o Internal: autonomic nervous system – increase/decrease in heart rate, blood pressure, stomach mobility o External: motor response = verbal statements, facial expressions, thoughts related to the experience  Emotional states in others can provoke emotional states in ourselves Basic emotional states:  Charles Darwin: emotional states are innately in children and are not learned  There are universal emotional states : they involved from similar expressions in nonhuman animals – serve adaptive purpose  Limitations: did not perform cross-cultural observations o Did not suggest the emotional state was localized within the brain  Cross cultural studies was performed by studying the emotions of the Fore tribe: New Guinea o There were never exposed to the Western culture, but they made facial expressions similar to those of Europeans in response to stimuli stimuli  There are universal basic emotional states that occur in all humans – similar areas of the brain  Ekman: for emotional states to be considered basic it must have the following: 1. Distinctive facial expression 2. Distinctive physiological state 3. Facial and physiological state that occur together and are hard to separate 4. Instantaneous onset, which lasts for a brief duration 5. Distinctive eliciting stimuli 6. Automatic appraisal (does not involved cognitive) 7. Similar expression in the related primates  Some don’t have any facial expressions: jealousy, greed, etc...  hard to know what an individual is experiencing without linguistic confirmation The adaptive value of emotional states:  phobias can be innate – it is initiated by stimuli that are relevant to our survival  emotions may motivate us to perform behavior that also might be adaptive: ex: social anxiety- caused by desire to be liked by others, which helped in our survival  Emotional states act as signals to ensure that behaviors occur; even those without facial expressions have significant adaptive value. Both basic and secondary emotional states help us solve or avoid previously encountered problems.  Some emotional states are more salient than others, such as anger being easier to detect than happiness. Detecting emotional states in others and the self serves as a predictive function – helps us avoid negative emotions and take advantage of positive ones  In a study: they found that participants were likely to express and mimic the same facial expression as the pictures they were looking – confirming that the view of emotional faces act as a signal  Facial expressions also serve as predictive signals since they are shown in other mammals  It has been suggested that some emotions don’t have facial expressions because they are better served as private emotions (ex: lust) Theories of emotional states James-Lange Cannon-Bard Schachter-Singer Somatic marker Appraisal theory -experience the -cognitive react too -similar emotions can -Elliot: brain damage Cost-benefit analysis physical before the quickly to come after produce different patient – could not of situations. cognitive physical feelings depending experience emotions on the context to make decisions – Physiological although he knew response is from the how he should feel unconscious evaluation of the situation -unconscious -animals who could -when one -the brain The cognitive portion physical response no longer feel their experiences arousal, synthesizes the info is when the bodies still reacted they associate it with from the body to individual with fear the situation produce a unified consciously examines percept. the unconscious appraisal -when you make a -those with facial -cognitive states are Association between Physiological facial response, it paralysis still important emotional state and responses include leads to the emotion experience emotion bodily change is the the tendency to somatic marker make responses -those who lost -same physical -degree of arousal Somatic: our brain Emotional states are autonomic response does not correlated with the evaluates novel action tendencies, it responses yield the same degree they situations from alerts the organism, experience decrease emotions experience emotion previous experience to provide intensity of emotion possibilities for action -stimulus  -bridge study: higher Learning is implicit = Strength: the ability thalamus  cortex bridge, higher report automatically to tell the difference (cognition of of attractiveness produced by between implicit and emotion) emotions and not by explicit affective hypothalamus conscious (can be evaluations (hormones for the product of learning) physical response) Are the basis on which we make decisions Laterality of emotion: Laterality of emotional states Production of emotional behaviors  Most common emotional stimuli are the faces o Not perfectly symmetrical o When we make facial expressions our faces are again asymmetric  Asymmetrical is due to the differences in the contraction of the muscles of one side of the face  Contractions of the muscles is dependent on the activity of the facial nerve  Voluntary expression are from the pre-central gyrus – it sends bilateral projections to the muscles of the upper face and contralaterally to the muscles of the lower face  Involuntary facial expressions are controlled by the thalamus, through bilateral projections. (the right controls the left, the left controls the right)  Left side of their face was more likely to be prominent than the right when participants were examining photographs and paintings  Emotional facial expressions have greater change in expression in the left hemiface, which is controlled by the right hemisphere. o right hemisphere is specialized for emotional expression o most left handed people exhibit a preference for left side of the facial expressions o women express less asymmetry than men o valence of emotion (whether emotion is positive of negative) can influence the asymmetry observed  those expressing happiness were more leftward asymmetry  those expression negative emotions were displayed by the left hemiface (right hemisphere)  it is still not certain if a specific side of the face is responsible for the positive or negative emotions  positive emotions may present with less lateralized expression because of their linguistic properties, whereas negative emotions are linked with survival and less linguistics. o Ex: when you’re happy, you can say “I am happy” but when you are scared (negative) you run away instead. o Negative behaviors may engage in the right hemisphere more than positive emotions, since it is responsible for automated movement, (escape) o Approach behaviors may engage more in the left hemisphere since it specializes in fine- motor control. o Study done by Borod suggest that valence effects are more likely to be observed when self-report measures of subjective experience are used o Neither the approach-avoidance or the attentional biases involve emotional states, rather they suggest that motor consequence of emotions may mediate facial expressions o Speech can convey emotional states. Prosody: communication through language requires more than simply choosing the correct word, it depends on the tone of voice, often related to emotional tone **in the right hemisphere**  Prosody also has to do with the presence of a questions, for ex: some phrases are questions without the presence of words such as who, what, where why. Simply using the tone  Propositional prosody: semantic information that is portrayed is given a value by the prosody that is employed.  Ex: Todd is soooooo smart (*implies sarcasm)  Affective prosody: gives you more information than what is said, which conveys an emotional response,  Ex: The Lakers won again, we are able to hear if the person is a Lakers fan or not  Right hemisphere activity in the production of both prosodic speech and prosodic singing Perception of emotional stimuli  Participants were told to listen to presented words that are spoken in an emotional tone, ex: cat in a happy voice o Left ear advantage for reporting the emotional tone because perception of prosody is mediated by the right hemisphere o When participants were told to detect specific words, there was right ear advantage.  LEA for the affective part of the target and REA for the linguistics part of the target  Right hemisphere is dominant for both producing and expressing prosody.  Participants were better at identifying the emotion portrayed by the face when the face is presented in the left visual field  They said that individuals perceive portraits as being more emotional when the left side of the face is exposed to a greater degree  Right hemisphere is dominant for the perception and production of emotional facial expressions Role of subcortical structures in em
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