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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Oct 1, 2013 Lecture 4 In a normal nervous system, we have constant feedback with all our peripheral nervous system points (e.g. our skin is constantly contact with our brain). Diencephalon  Hypothalamus – comprised of nuclei – they are involved in host activities such as hunger, sexual appetite, thirst – lesions to these different structures which can cause deficit in terms of one seeking certain behaviours  Interacts with the pituitary gland  Participates in nearly all aspects of motivated behaviour  Epithalamus – another term for the pineal gland – it’s associated more or less with biorhythms and circadian reactions  Poorly understood; Biorhythms, hunger, thirst  Thalamus – relay center – comprised of so many different circuitry nodes that allow for information to get from peripheral nervous system up to the cortex in both motor and sensory directions  Relays sensory information to appropriate targets  Relays information between cortical areas  Relays information between forebrain and brainstem Forebrain  Three main structures  Basal Ganglia  Limbic System  Cerebral Cortex Basal Ganglia and Limbic System are considered subcortical structures. Basal Ganglia  Collection of nuclei that includes the;  Putamen  Globus Pallidus  Caudate Nucleus  Supports stimulus-response learning  Functions in sequencing movements – So when it comes to disorders that involves the basal ganglia, it’s not the initiation of the movement that’s important but the coordination of movements that’s a progress Diseases of the Basal Ganglia  Huntington’s Chorea  Genetic disorder  Cell death in the basal ganglia  Involuntary “dance like” movements  Parkinson’s Disease  Projection from the substantia nigra to the basal ganglia dies – substantia nigra are small group of cells that have dark presentations (e.g. latin – black) – if someone has Parkinson’s disease, it takes about 50% of neurons within the nucleus of the substantia nigra to actually become evaded before the clinical symptom shows up. E.g. Michael J. Fox (actor) who has Parkinson’s, he noticed particular symptoms such as tremors when he was quite young but later on becoming more or less uncontrollable. Once you pass a certain threshold, it’s basically full blown and it requires medication.  Rhythmical tremors in hands and legs  Pill rolling behaviour  Amputation – they can do short steps and shuffle along  Rigid movement and difficulty maintaining balance  Tourette’s syndrome – inability to control one’s behaviour in socially appropriate way. Children usually with this syndrome start to say things that they’re not suppose to, yell out things, or make noises that don’t necessarily have social functions Basal ganglia diseases are disorders of controlling movement, not producing movement. Limbic System (limbic lobe)  Amygdala – ability to associate memories with emotional experiences  Hippocampus  Septum  Cingulated cortex (cingulated gyrus) Neocortex (cerebral cortex)  Has expanded the most during evolution  Comprises 80% of the human brain  Six layers – don’t have to know the details  Two cerebral hemispheres, four lobes **For the exam, expect a brain structure with missing labels (e.g. medial view slide 12) Fissure, sulci, and Gyri Fissure  A cleft in the cortex that is deep enough to indent the ventricles (e.g. longitudinal medial fissure, sylvian fissure (lateral fissure) Sulci  A shallow cleft (groove) in the cortex Gyri  A ridge in the cortex Organization of the cortex in relation to its inputs and outputs Projection Map  Map of the location of the inputs and outputs to the cortex Primary Areas – solitary or isolated functions  Frontal lobe – motor functions  Parietal lobe – body senses – behind the central sulcus - conceptualization  Temporal lobe – auditory functions  Occipital lobe – visual functions Secondary Areas – just beyond primary areas – provide additional processing  Adjacent to primary areas  Receive input from the primary areas  Engaged in interpreting sensory input or organizing movements Tertiary Areas (Association Cortex) – typically located between secondary areas – the largest area within the brain of Association cortex is within what lobe? Parietal lobe  Located between secondary areas  Mediate complex activities Cellular Organization of the Cortex Cytoarchitectonic Map  Map based on the organization, structure, and distribution of cortical cells  Brodmann’s Map  most widely used Cytoarchitectonic map Connections between Cortical areas  Neocortical regions are connected by four types of axon projections  Long connections between one lobe and another – communicating or synthesizing at a higher level  Relatively short connections between one part of a lobe and another – U shaped connections between gyri  Interhemispheric connections – typically occurs across the corpus callosum  Connections through the thalamus Number of structures that involve long distance connections from one point to another (e.g. Arcuate fibers are ones that connected to adjacent gyri - white mater going from one gyri to another – cells are communicating with each other, another example of a longer tract is inferior longitudinal tract – white mater tracts connecting to the temporal lobes to the occipital lobes ) ** Not required to memorize where the structures go but be aware of what types of fibers are within the brain and what they connect to and what that r
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