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Lecture 3

PSYB65 Lecture 3.pdf

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Zachariah Campbell

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Lecture 3: Structural Neuroanatomy • Neuroanatomy: Finding your way around the brain: • locations of layers, nuclei and brain pathways are described by their placement with respect to their relative locations, and with respect to viewer perspective • Symmetrical Organization • Ipsilateral- structures on the same side • Contralateral- structures on the opposite side • Bilateral- structures that lie in both hemispheres • Proximal- structures that are close together • Distal- structures that are far apart • Efferent- movement away from the brain • Afferent- movement toward the brain • Functional Divisions of the Nervous System: • Central nervous system (CNS)- brain and spinal cord • Somatic nervous system (SNS)- spinal and cranial nerves • Autonomic nervous system (ANS)- balances the internal organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves • Nervous System Diagram • Support and Protection: • CNS • brain enclosed in the skull • spinal cord encased in bony vertebrae • Meninges • three layers of membranes inside the skull and vertebrae • dura mater, arachnoid membrane and pia mater • cushioned by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that continuously circulates • hydrocephalus [water on the brain] • PNS • lies outside of bony encasements and protection of the meninges • more vulnerable to injury • Blood Supply: • Two carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain • connect at the base of the brain and branch off into the ...Anterior CerebralArtery; Middle CerebralArtery; Posterior CerebralArtery • Neurons and Glia: • Neural Stem Cells- undifferentiated; capacity for self-renewal • Progenitor Cells- develop from stem cells; give rise to blasts, primitive types of nervous system cells • Blasts- develop into neurons or glia • Sensory Neurons- bipolar neurons; somatosensory neuron • Interneuron- link up sensory and motor neurons • Motor Neurons- project to muscles • Glial Cells: • Ependymal- small, secretes cerebrospinal fluid • Astrocyte- star shaped, symmetrical, nutritive and support functions • Microglial- small, mesodermally derived, defensive functions • Oligodendroglial- asymmetrical, forms insulating myelin around axons in brain and spinal cord • Schwann- asymmetrical, wraps around peripheral nerves to form insulating myelin, only found in peripheral nervous system • Gray, White and Reticular Matter: • Gray Matter- colour from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies • White Matter- colour from axons covered in insulating layer of glial cells • Reticular Matter- colour and appearance from cell bodies and axons • Layers, Nuclei, Nerves, and Tracts: • Layers or Nuclei- well-defined group of cell bodies • Tract- large collection of axons projecting to or away from a layer or nucleus within the CNS • Nerves- fibers and fiber pathways that enter and leave the CNS • The Origin and Development of the Central Nervous System: • Ventricles • hollow pockets within the brain filled with CSF • numbered 1-4 • lateral
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