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Brain and Behavior lec 1.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Brain and Behavior- Lecture 1 - Traumatic brain injury-> a wound to the brain that results from a blow to the head - - Scientific field of neuropsychology, the study of the relation between behavior and brain function. Neuropsychology draws information from many disciplines—anatomy, biology, biophysics, ethology, pharmacology, physiology, physiological psychology, and philosophy among them. Neuropsychology is strongly influenced by two traditional foci of experimental and theoretical investigations into brain function: the brain hypothesis, the idea that the brain is the source of behavior; and the neuron hypothesis, the idea that the unit of brain structure and function is the neuron, or nerve cell.This chapter traces the development of these two ideas and introduces some The brain has two almost assymetric halves called hemispheres on the left side and right side - Psychology has a long part but only a short history: The written record for understanding ourselves and society is limited. - Removal of the cortex did not appear to eliminate any function completely, though it seemed to reduce all functions to some extent. This demonstration appeared to be a strong argument against localization of function and even to cast doubt on the role of the cortex in behavior - The right hemisphere although mute, was nevertheless found to comprehend words spoken aloud, read printed words, point to corresponding objects or pictures in an array, and match presented objects or pictures correctly from spoken to printed words and vice versa. Each hemisphere has its own higher gnostic functions, and uses its own percepts, mental images, associations and ideas. Has its own learning processes, and separate chain of memories, and all are essentially inaccessible to the conscious experience of the other hemisphere. The left hemisphere is dominant for spoken language and for analytic and sequential actions. The right is the superior cerebral member when it comes to performing certain kinds of mental tasks entailing spatial and synthetic acts. Including faces, fitting designs into matrices, and judging circle size from an arc, discriminating musical chords, sorting block sizes and shapes into categories. In the right hemisphere a picture is worth a thousand words. - This deficit is visual form agnosia. D.F.’s visual acuity was normal, but she could not distinguish vertical lines from horizontal lines. D.F.’s visual agnosia stands in contrast to the deficits displayed by patients who display visual ataxia (taxis, meaning “to move toward”). These patients can describe objects accurately, but they make errors in reaching for them. The brain lesions in agnosia patients such as D.F. occur in neural structures that constitute a pathway from the visual cortex to the temporal lobe, called the ventral stream. Brain lesions in patients with optic ataxia are in neural structures that form a pathway from the visual cortex to the parietal cortex called the dorsal stream - Hughlings-jackson described the nervous system as having three levels: the spinal cord, the brain stem, and the forebrain which developed successfully through evolution. An expression used today to encompass this, the idea that behaviors are organized in a distributed hierarchy. However the concept of this function still presents a dilemma to people today. - - TREPHINA
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