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PSYB65H3 (519)

Chapter 05.docx

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Zachariah Campbell

Chapter.05 - Acetylcholine is associated with the “rest and digest” response and noradrenaline is associated with the “fight or flight” response - Motor neurons are cholinergic: acetylcholine is their main neurotransmitter. Motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord send their axons to the body’s skeletal muscles, including the muscles of the eyes, face, trunk, limbs, fingers and toes. At the skeletal muscle, cholinergic neurons are excitatory and produce muscular contractions - Both ANS (para and sympa) are controlled by cholinergic neurons that emanate from the CNS at two levels of the spinal cord - The CNS neurons synapse with para neurons that also contain acetylocholine and with sympathetic neurons that contain norephinephrine - Ach neurons in the CNS system synapse with sympathetic noradrengergic neurons to prepare the bodys organs for fight or flight - Cholinergic neurons in CNS synapse with autonomic Ach neurons in para to prepare the bodys organs to rest and digest Neurotransmission in CNS - Endorphins are opinoid neuropeptides that affect the brains pain and pleasure center - Neuropeptide such as oxytocin(mediate mother-child bonding) serve specific hormonal functions in humans - GABA and glutamate, regulate neural excitability in all animals, our minute to minute fluctuations in arousal levels are mediated in part by changes in the activity of GABA and glutamate - Each of four small-molecule transmitters-acetylcholine, dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin- participate in its own neural activating system that coordinates wide areas of the brain to act in concert - These four transmitters are in the brain, and main cause of symptoms of parkinsons disease is a decrease in dopamine, but other neurotransmitters are also affected Cholinergic System - Cholinergic system plays a role in normal waking behavior and is thought to function in memory, people who suffer from Alzheimer’s disease, which begins with minor forgetfulness
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