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PSYB65H3 (519)
Lecture 8

PSYB65 Lecture 8.pdf

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

PSYB65 Course Notes 1 Lecture 8: Hearing • Tonotopic theory =>different points on the basilar membrane and in the cortex represent different sound frequencies • Auditory Pathways: • axons of hair cells form the auditory nerve (8th cranial nerve) • auditory nerve projects nuclei in the hindbrain • next, axons project to the inferior colliculus and then relay through the medial geniculate nucleus of the thalamus • one pathway projects to the primary auditory cortex, while the other projects to the secondary auditory cortex • Body Sense: • four major somatosensory sub-modalities: • nocioception- perception of pain • hapsis- perception of fine touch • proprioception- perception of the position of the body in space • balance- balance of system with respect to gravity • Somatosensory Cortex (SI): • Wilder Penfield => stimulated the somatosensory cortex in epileptic patients and topographically mapped SI • Homunculus: “Little Human” • Disportionate sizes; larger area=higher sensitivity • number of homunculi exist in the somatosensory cortex • The Vestibular System: Motion and Balance • located in the inner ear • allows us to perceive our own motion and maintain balance • consists of the: • semicircular canals • otolith organs • semicircular canals and otolith organs contain hair cells that bend when we move • vestibular system pathway • hair cells project to the 8th cranial nerve to nuclei in the brainstem • connections to the midbrain and cerebellum • Taste and Smell: • taste receptors => taste buds [sweet, sour, salty, bitter] • smell receptors => receptor surface, the olfactory epithelium, is composed of... receptor hair cells and supporting cells • Taste and Smell Pathways: • Gustatory pathway: • cranial nerves 9, 10, and 7 leave the tongue and enter the solitary tract • after the solitary tract two pathways emerge • one route projects to SI and SII (in the insular cortex) via the ventral posteriomedial nucleus of the thalamus PSYB65 Course Notes 2 • one route projects to the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus • Olfactory Pathways: • axons of olfactory receptor relays synapse in the olfactory bulb • olfactory bulb sends projects to the pyriform cortex, the amygdala, and the entorhinal cortex • pyriform cortex projects to the orbitofrontal cortex via the dorsomedial nucleus of the thalamus • Perception: • Perception =>the subjective experience of the transduction of sensory stimuli • individual differences in perception exist • perception is influenced by context • Motor System: • functions to move the body • parts of the motor system • Motor Cortex • Basal Ganglia • Cerebellum • Brainstem • Spinal Cord • Motor Neurons • The Neocortex and the Initiation of Movement: • four regions in the neocortex for skilled movement: • Posterior Cortex =>specify movement goals and send information to the prefrontal cortex • Prefrontal Cortex =>generates plans for movement • Premotor Cortex =>recognizes movement of others and selects similar or different actions • Primary Motor Cortex =>executes movements • Identifying the Motor Cortex with the Use of Electrical Stimulation: • Wilder Penfie
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