Class Notes (835,309)
Canada (509,088)
Psychology (7,776)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Lecture 6

PSYB65 Lecture 6.pdf

5 Pages
122 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB65 Course Notes 1 Lecture 6: Sensory Systems & Motor Function • The History of Neuropsychology: • Thomas Willis: • famous anatomist =>discovered that blood would come to an area in the centre of the brain • Robert Whytt (1717-1766): • “An Essay on the Vital and Involuntary Motions ofAnimals” (1751) • decapitated frogs and saw after death basic reflexes still working • The Spinal Cord & Peripheral Nervous System: • focus on animals =>spinal cord more accessible • Charles Bell (1774-1842): • privately published in 1811- “Idea for a NewAnatomy of the Brain” • Dorsal root dissection =>involuntary behaviour • Ventral root dissection =>voluntary behaviour • Francois Magendie (1785-1855): • “Journal of Physiology and Experimental Pathology” (1822) • Dorsal root dissection =>sensation • Ventral root dissection =>movement • Bell-Magendie Law: • although Bell incorrect, the two theories were brought together to create this law • the law that the ventral and dorsal roots are different by way of their functions [motor and sensor] • Johannes Peter Muller: • Law of Specific Nerve Energies- each nerve imposes its own specific quality on what we perceive; the doctrine predicted that different stimuli acting on the same nerve should produce the same sensation • Franz Joseph Gall: • Austrian physician =>speculated that shape of skull attributed to different characteristics • Father of Phrenology • speculated that individual characteristics were associated with external features of the skull • Johann Caspar Spurzheim: • helped to spread idea of phrenology • partnered to develop a perfect knowledge of human nature based upon the study and measurement of the skull • Phrenology Disproven: • Richard Porson, Professor of Greek at University of Cambridge recorded to have thickest skull and smallest brain ever dissected postmortem in Europe • Marie-Jean Pierre Flourens: • Methodology ofAblation • Two guiding Principles... • 1) The parts of the brain to be studied should be anatomically separate and distinct • 2) Behavioral analysis needs to take place before and after surgical intervention PSYB65 Course Notes 2 • Drew several conclusions => cerebral lobes = voluntary actions; cerebral lobes = perception; cerebellum = motor coordination; medulla oblongata = “vital knot” • For Flourens, the unity of the brain was the reigning “grand principle” • contributed to the concepts of equipotentiality • concluded that the brain is the seat of the mind through his animal research • Pierre-Paul Broca: • french physician and neurologist • president of the FrenchAnthropological Society • proponent of Flourens • 1861- Climactic debate regarding localization [speech] • Patient named Leborgne: • History = epilepsy, right hemiplegia, and lost faculty of speech 21 years earlier • Broca’s postmortem examination changed his opinion • Stated lesion in the frontal lobe was the cause of the loss of speech • Carl Wernicke: • receptive aphasia • associated with damage to the superior portion of the left temporal lobe • speech output was rapid and effortless but conveyed little meaning • Hemispheric Specialization: • Behavioral Asymmetry: • the brain is bilateral, but as you go deeper there is a lot of asymmetry • Anatomical Asymmetry: • Right Hemisphere (RH) is larger and heavier/ Left Hemisphere (LH) is more dense • Differential protuberances ... in the frontal and occipital poles • Frontal operculum ... larger subcortical component in LH • Parietal lobe ... larger in RH • Temporal lobes have a marked asymmetry • retractor opens lateral fissure to reveal primary auditory cortex • the lateral fissure has a steeper slope on the right hemisphere than on the left • Neuronal Asymmetry: • distinct differences at cellular level • LH has more dendrite branches than RH • distinct differences at genetic level as well • occur all the way down to the lowest level • Asymmetry in Neurological Patients: • Double Dissociation • two areas of the cortex are functionally dissociated • each test is affected by a lesion in one zone but not in the other • Corpus callosum- broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain • when a person undergoes a commissurotomy, the fibers connected the 2 hemispheres is split and the pathways between the right side and left side is severed permanently =>this doesn’t lead to someone becoming “brain dead”, but the brain is literally split in two PSYB65 Course Notes 3 • a person might undergo this procedure to prevent epilepsy =>best to do when patient is young • The WADATest: • Procedure and Purpose: • injection of sodium amobarbital to produce
More Less

Related notes for PSYB65H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit