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Lecture 6

PSYB65 Lecture 6.pdf

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Zachariah Campbell

PSYB65 Course Notes 1 Lecture 6: Sensory Systems & Motor Function • The History of Neuropsychology: • Thomas Willis: • famous anatomist =>discovered that blood would come to an area in the centre of the brain • Robert Whytt (1717-1766): • “An Essay on the Vital and Involuntary Motions ofAnimals” (1751) • decapitated frogs and saw after death basic reflexes still working • The Spinal Cord & Peripheral Nervous System: • focus on animals =>spinal cord more accessible • Charles Bell (1774-1842): • privately published in 1811- “Idea for a NewAnatomy of the Brain” • Dorsal root dissection =>involuntary behaviour • Ventral root dissection =>voluntary behaviour • Francois Magendie (1785-1855): • “Journal of Physiology and Experimental Pathology” (1822) • Dorsal root dissection =>sensation • Ventral root dissection =>movement • Bell-Magendie Law: • although Bell incorrect, the two theories were brought together to create this law • the law that the ventral and dorsal roots are different by way of their functions [motor and sensor] • Johannes Peter Muller: • Law of Specific Nerve Energies- each nerve imposes its own specific quality on what we perceive; the doctrine predicted that different stimuli acting on the same nerve should produce the same sensation • Franz Joseph Gall: • Austrian physician =>speculated that shape of skull attributed to different characteristics • Father of Phrenology • speculated that individual characteristics were associated with external features of the skull • Johann Caspar Spurzheim: • helped to spread idea of phrenology • partnered to develop a perfect knowledge of human nature based upon the study and measurement of the skull • Phrenology Disproven: • Richard Porson, Professor of Greek at University of Cambridge recorded to have thickest skull and smallest brain ever dissected postmortem in Europe • Marie-Jean Pierre Flourens: • Methodology ofAblation • Two guiding Principles... • 1) The parts of the brain to be studied should be anatomically separate and distinct • 2) Behavioral analysis needs to take place before and after surgical intervention PSYB65 Course Notes 2 • Drew several conclusions => cerebral lobes = voluntary actions; cerebral lobes = perception; cerebellum = motor coordination; medulla oblongata = “vital knot” • For Flourens, the unity of the brain was the reigning “grand principle” • contributed to the concepts of equipotentiality • concluded that the brain is the seat of the mind through his animal research • Pierre-Paul Broca: • french physician and neurologist • president of the FrenchAnthropological Society • proponent of Flourens • 1861- Climactic debate regarding localization [speech] • Patient named Leborgne: • History = epilepsy, right hemiplegia, and lost faculty of speech 21 years earlier • Broca’s postmortem examination changed his opinion • Stated lesion in the frontal lobe was the cause of the loss of speech • Carl Wernicke: • receptive aphasia • associated with damage to the superior portion of the left temporal lobe • speech output was rapid and effortless but conveyed little meaning • Hemispheric Specialization: • Behavioral Asymmetry: • the brain is bilateral, but as you go deeper there is a lot of asymmetry • Anatomical Asymmetry: • Right Hemisphere (RH) is larger and heavier/ Left Hemisphere (LH) is more dense • Differential protuberances ... in the frontal and occipital poles • Frontal operculum ... larger subcortical component in LH • Parietal lobe ... larger in RH • Temporal lobes have a marked asymmetry • retractor opens lateral fissure to reveal primary auditory cortex • the lateral fissure has a steeper slope on the right hemisphere than on the left • Neuronal Asymmetry: • distinct differences at cellular level • LH has more dendrite branches than RH • distinct differences at genetic level as well • occur all the way down to the lowest level • Asymmetry in Neurological Patients: • Double Dissociation • two areas of the cortex are functionally dissociated • each test is affected by a lesion in one zone but not in the other • Corpus callosum- broad band of nerve fibers joining the two hemispheres of the brain • when a person undergoes a commissurotomy, the fibers connected the 2 hemispheres is split and the pathways between the right side and left side is severed permanently =>this doesn’t lead to someone becoming “brain dead”, but the brain is literally split in two PSYB65 Course Notes 3 • a person might undergo this procedure to prevent epilepsy =>best to do when patient is young • The WADATest: • Procedure and Purpose: • injection of sodium amobarbital to produce
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