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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 3

PSYB65 - Lecture 3 Notes

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 3 Vascular disorders => Things that go wrong with the blood supply. Cerebro VascularAccident: CVA  Stroke  Severe interruption of blood supply to the brain ==> Blood carries oxygen and sucrose/glucose to the brain. Disruption in the blood supply results in eschemia, which is a blockage. Infarct – Dead or dying tissue – Is a result of a lack of oxygen to that area. • Can be fast or slow ==> More often fast. • Slowly: Occurs over time: For example, due to cholesterol buildup. It causes a slow reduction in cognitive capacity. Damage depends on location. The larger the artery, the more massive the damage. Encephelomacia:  Very slow reduction in brain supply which causes an accumulation of small amounts of damage.  Brain softens, neurons die.  Occurs more often in the elderly. Transient EschemicAttack: • Temporary migraines caused by musculature on blood supply (vessels) contracting. There are no sensory receptors in the brain. Pain phase (dilation, constriction) WHAT CAUSES THESE? 1) Thrombosis –Alocally formed occlusion (blockage). For example, blood clot. 2) Embolism – Plaque breaks off and hits an artery in the brain and blocks it. ==> Comes from outside the nervous system. Arteriosclerosis – Slow blockage formed generally by cholesterol. Cerebral Hemorrhage:  Blood vessel inside the brain that bursts.  Bleeding inside the brain => Happens more in the elderly. If it causes cell death in an area, it could be called a stroke. Subdural Hematoma:  Bleeding between the skull and the brain. The blood applies pressure on the brain, pushing it inward.  If pressure is relieved in time, then no damage occurs. Angioma: [can lead to an aneurism]  Acollection or a mass of enlarged abnormal blood vessels.  Happens before you are born – defect – didn't form properly.  Inherently weak ==> Often bursts on their own or as a result of high blood pressure. Aneurism:  Vascular dilation, weak vessels – prone to bursting.  Problems in the elasticity of the blood vessel.  Can be either a birth defect or can just happen afterwards. Closed Head Injuries - • Anterior frontal, anterior temporal lobe damage occurs from such injuries. • The brain richochets inside the head (contra-coupe damage), and so damage should be looked for on the opposite side of the initial injury. Brain Tumours => Cancer => Can start inside the brain or somewhere else, then spread. =>
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