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Canada (508,661)
Psychology (7,776)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 4

PSYB65 Lecture 4 Notes

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Ted Petit

PSYB65 – Lecture 4 Neuron – Dendrites => Cell body =>Axon => Terminal Buttons Ion channels in membrane of neurons: − When stimulated, they open and allow sodium into the cell (sodium is positively charged) − The inside of the cell becomes more positive, and if enough sodium goes in, the cell reaches a threshold. ==>All the pores open up, makes the cell extremely positive. This spike is known as an action potential. => Starts in the cell body, zips down to axon. => Goes down to the synapse (gap between terminal buttons and the next cell's dendrite) • Synaptic vesicles carry transmitter substances. • When the action potential reaches the end of the axon, vesicles open up and stimulate the next dendrite. Synaptic cleft = synapse Receptors on the axon side are known as pre-synaptic. Receptors on the dendrite side are known as post-synaptic. Parkinson's Disease Schizophrenia * Not enough dopamine * Too sensitive to dopamine * Underactivation of dopaminergic system * Overactivation of dopaminergic system How to intervene: 1) Dopamine has to be synthesized. 2) Transmitters have to be stored (packaged – or will be destroyed) * Some chemicals keep them from being packaged. 3) Release. 4) Receptor activation *Increase or decrease activation. => Certain things work for certain transmitters. Need to try all of the steps to see what works best for the particular situation. Getting rid of the transmitter => 2 ways 1) Reuptake 2) Degradation (destroy it) To Increase Dopaminergic To Decrease Dopaminergic Activity Activity Synthesis - Increase - Decrease Packaging --- - Decrease Release - Increase - Decrease ReceptorActivation - Increase - Decrease Inactivation - Decrease - Increase Receptor activation: Mimicker - Looks almost identical to a transmitter substance. It can fit into the receptor and activates it. Blocker - Does not activate the receptor, but fills the spot so that nothing else can. Decreases receptor activation. I. Monoamines (BiogenicAmines) A. Catecholamines 1) Dopamine (DA) 2) Norepinephrine (NE) * Synthesis: Dopa => DA=> NE B. Serotonin (5-HT) • Synthesis: 5OHT (5-hydroxytriptoline) => 5HT (5-hydroxytriptomine) II. Acetylcholine (ACh) => Activates muscles • Synthesis: Choline =>AcetylCoA=>Ach Acetylcholine Esterase breaks downAch. Group I ==> Inactivation: Reuptake Group II ==> Inactivation: Degradation (breakdown) Medications Parkinson's patients: Take L-dopa every day. Schizophrenia patients: Dopamine receptor blockers. Epilepsy
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