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Ted Petit (310)

Lecture 2

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Ted Petit

Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture 2 ➢ Oldest parts of the brain are at the very back – very primitive (emotional repertoire) ➢ As you move forward, brain becomes more complex ➢ Very front – most recently evolved & most intellectual ➢ Basic Organization of Brain  How the brain is anatamically organized  Cerebral Cortex (Neocortex)  Makes up most of the brain; in the adult brain, it's hard to see anything else  Divided into different lobes  Brain is not smooth for humans, has mountains & valley – use these to locate where we are in the brain  Sulci – the valleys; indentations, use them to tell where we are • Fissures: a very large and deep valley/groove  Gyri – mountains  2 hemispheres are divided by a longitudinal fissure – separating the left hemisphere from the right hemisphere.  Most of the information that come in are sensory (info from eyes, skin, our senses), and once we process all that, what brain does is get the information out to make a decision – sends motor information out  Everything from the right-hand side of your universe and controlled and goes to your left brain. If you burn your right finger then it is your left hemisphere that senses it.  So if right hemisphere is damaged, one wont be able use the leftside of their body – left will be paralyzed.  Corpus Callosum - Connects the 2 hemispheres – so they can communicate with each other.  Central Fissure/Sulcus – Very deep groove, right in the center of the brain  Sylvian/Lateral Fissure –Alarge fissue on the side  These fissures are landmarks to help us locate parts of the brain.  Cortex is divided into lobes – 4 on each side  Each lobe has two different kinds of cortex – 1) a primary cortex & 2) associational cortex • Primary cortex deals with the primary thing that the lobe does – every lobe has a primary cortex • Associational cortex deals with processing input in much more complicated way – this is much newer in terms of evolution. The more evolved animals have more of this relative to primary cortex. • Ex: a specific small area within that lobe (occipital): input from eyes comes directly in but it is also surrounded by all this tissue that help process that information  Brodman mapped the cerebral cortex – labelled parts using numbers  Frontal lobe • Anterior portion • Begins at the very anterior (front) portion of the brain and continues backward until it hits the central sulcus (central sulcus separates frontal from parietal) • Mostly involved with output – motor function • Motor movement • Also involves planning of motor movement & as well as planning of whole life and what it takes to get there • Planning, inhibition of inappropriate behaviours • Primary cortex • a strip of tissue called the motor strip and located in the precentral gyrus. • When you have a central sulcus you have a gyrus on either side (one in front and one after – the one in front is the precentral) • Areas 4 & 6 – the primary motor cortex • Once a decision is made it goes out through the primary motor strip • Primary motor strip has a homonculus • Homonculus for Motor Cortex • Doesnt have an area for the genitals • Similar to Sensory – toes are at the top • If damage is in the motor – impairment in movement but if damage is in the sensory – impairment in feeling but not movement • But REMEMBER – if it's motor cortex damage on the right side, it's impairment on the left. • *Paralyses – a lack of motor function; nothing to do with sensation • LOOKAT DIAGRAM  Parietal Lobe • Starting with the central sulcus and moves backward • Responsible for somato-sensory information/input – senses from the body (not from eyes and ears) but everything else; pain, temperature, itchiness • Primary cortex/strip is located in the post-central gyrus – little mountain after the central sulcus • This is where thesensory input goes to - • All the other tissue is associational cortex: it builds higher order sensations about the world. • Brodman's Areas: 3, 1 & 2 • Homonculus for Sensory Strip • Neurons at the top of the brain – get
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