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Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 3

Lecture 3 Notes

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Ted Petit
Semester
Fall

Description
Human Brain and Behaviour Lecture 3 ➢ Mid-term: Friday, Nov 4 from 3 – 5pm ➢ Vascular Disorders  Things that go wrong with blood supply  Cerebro-Vascular Accident (CVA) – Stroke  Asevere interruption of blood supply to the brain  Brain does not stay alive for very long without blood supply and glucose (within minutes)  Get to the hospital instantly  Fast  Aschemia  Adisruption in blood supply (blockage)  Ageneral insufficient supply of blood  Whenever this happens, death of the brain tissue  When severe – causes an infarct = which means dead or dying tissue  This blockage of blood flow can be very fast, immediate (more common) or even slow  Most of the damage is irreversable  However, blockage of blood supply can happen over time – especially during old age due to cholesterol, etc.  What happens during stroke depends on which artery is blocked and also the larger the artery the more massive the damage is going to be. • Entire cerebral artery damage = damage to the frontal lobes  Encepholomalacia  Avery slow reduction in the brain supply which causes an accumulation of small amounts of damage rather than stroke which is sudden and quite dramatic  Bruised tissue, some cells are dying and some are not  Softening of brain tissue – tends to occur more in the elderly  Always slow  Transient-AschemicAttack  Temporary  You get aschemia (not enough blood supply) but it's temporary.  People have migraine headaches may sometimes get this. They usually get a loss of vision in a particular part of their visual field.  Caused by the musculature on the outside of the blood vessels contracting – reducing blood supply to the brain – temporary since migraines do go away. Reduction is not enough to kill neurons but it doesn't allow them to work very well, causing part of visual field to disappear.  Migraines are caused by pain in the blood vessels, not pain in your head.  These attacks can be caused by migraines but what causes sudden blockage/obstruction? • 1)Thrombosis • Alocally formed blockage in the artery which can be caused by blood clots. • But blood clots can dissolve quite quickly • 2) Embolism • Something is going on in another part of the body – cholesterol forming somewhere else but breaks away and then ends up getting to the brain and blocking it. • 3)Arterio-sclerosis • Slow blockage due to cholesterol – in the elderly  Cerebral Hemmhorage • Ablood vessel inside the brain that bursts – internal bleeding • Can be found in younger people but mostly in the elderly • If it's small and causes death in an area – it's still referred to as a stroke • Bleeding inside the brain  Subdoral Hematoma • Bleeding in the space between the skull and the brain • NOT bleeding inside the brain • CSF all gets squeezed to one side • The bleeding puts pressure on the brain • But since its not inside the brain, you won't have any damage to the brain – you can drain it out. But if you let it go and allow it to get to the brain stem, it may result in brain damage/death. • As we mature, the blood vessels get a little more fragile  Angioma • Acollection or a mass of enlarged abnormal blood vessels • Happens before you're born • Blood vessels didn't form properly – abnormal • By themselves are not serious – but they interfere with blood supply sometimes • They are inherently weak – not strong as regular blood vessels • They often just burst on their own • You may live with these vessels for your whole life and be fine but they could burst at anytime  Aneurism • An expansion of a weakened part of a blood vessel • Vascular Dialation caused by problems in the elasticity of the blood vessel. • Having a weak spot in blood vessel. • If aneurism bursts inside brain its a cerebral hemmhorage and if it burts outside then it would be a subdoral hema
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