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Canada (509,973)
Psychology (7,783)
PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)
Lecture 7

PSYB65 Lecture 7-11

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Ted Petit

PSYB65Lecture 7What are the types of drugsPrescription drugs o Get from the doctorOverthecounter drugs o Can get it from the drug store anywhere in Canada without a prescriptionSocial drugs o Alcohol nicotine caffeineIllicit drugs notproduced commercially OR produced commercially but not for their psychoactive effect o Marijuana LSD airplane glueToleranceFor most drugs if taken repeatedly theres a reduced behavioral effectAssumptionthe more you take a drug the brain respond to compensate for the repeated action of the drug by changing the sensitivity or the number of receptors o Neuroplasticity occur in the brain where it compensates for the overstimulation effect of the drugs by reducing the receptors to make it less sensitive in order to bring it back to normal rateHappens for stimulantsFor depressants the postsynaptic neurons by adapting to increase its receptors to bring the level of activation back to normal o Opposite effects from stimulants WithdrawalWhen the individual stop taking the drugs when they are in tolerance they will show withdrawal symptoms o Physiological or behavioral output changesWhat causes withdrawal symptoms o The brain already adjusted itself from the tolerance of the drug once you withdraw that drug it will bounce back to become unequal o When on stimulants and you withdraw it the brain will still have few receptors from the tolerance therefore it will understimulate the activationTherefore patient will become depressed Feels tiredness disorientedNot life threatening o When on depressant and you withdraw it the brain will still have increased receptors from the tolerance therefore it will overstimulate the activationTherefore patient will become stimulatedMight get risk of seizures therefore need to replace it with a lower type of depressantLife threateningThe behavioral effect of withdrawal are exactly the opposite of the behavioral effect of the drug itselfAddiction2 types of addiction o Psychological addiction and physical addictionPsychological addictionrefer to some sort of behavioral dependence on the drug o Difficult to define and measure o Does not have to be a drug behaviorally addicted to sexPhysical addictionsome physiologically measurable symptoms of the drug o Dilation of the pupil blood pressure changesAddiction depends on the form of the drugs the mechanism of administration than the drug itself o Cocainefrom cocoa plant which contains 2 on the leavesBy concentrating it the more addicting it is o Mechanism of administration usually deals with the speed and dosage of the drugStimulantsAll stimulants cause EEG into an activated state CaffeineFound in coffee and teaInhibits sleepStimulate the digestion system and to treat headachesCan get a tolerance of caffeine but not oftenCan get withdrawal o Get headache constipationNot very toxicEstimated 70100 cups of coffee to kill an average personInhibits the breakdown of cyclic AMP o Increase amount of cAMP which increase glucose production and cellular activity o Increases cellular metabolism NicotineMimicking Ach at the nicotinic receptor thereby stimulating themCause a release of adrenaline thereby increase heart rate and blood pressureSome tolerance does develop but not greatWithdrawal o DepressionNot very toxic except in children when they ingest the cigarette CocaineComes from cocoa leaves 2 cocaineCause increase in heart and respirationToxicity varies by the administrationPrevents the reuptake of norepinephrine thereby stimulating the neuron for a longer period of timeSome tolerance does develop but not extremeWithdrawal o Period of depressionAddiction is related to the type of cocaine liquid powder AmphetamineDiscovered in 1932Causes a reduction in fatigue and reduction in fatigue associated with decrement and performanceIncreases the activity in the medial forebrain bundle MFBthe reward system2 primarily uses o Use for hyperactive kidsRitalinhelps them focus y Methylphenidate y Very effective 5075 of kids improvedThey do not show tolerance o Use for appetite and weigh controlPeople lose their interest in foodThey show tolerance and addictionBanned in 1973 in prescription of this drug3 types of amphetamine o Damphetamine Lamphetamine and methamphetamine4 mechanism of action o Cause the norepinephrine to leak in the presynaptic terminal even without AP o Cause increase in release when theres an AP o Blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine o Direct mimic the receptor siteWithdrawal o Depression fatigue increase in appetite last for less than a week
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