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Lecture Notes Part 1 of the Semester - Sept12-Oct24

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Fall 2011PSYB65Human BrainBehaviorNothing out of tables or graphsbut need to know the book September 12 2011Lecture 1CHECKThe nervous system is divided into 2 partsCNSPNSCNSbrain and spinal cord PNSeverything elseextremitiesnerves that run from spinal cord into the limbs face etcSlide 2 spinal cord is continuous with the braincant tell where one ends and the other begins It is a part of the brain when it enters the skullgenerally Slide 5skematic The brain is divided into the forebrain midbrain and the hindbrainHindbrain Cerebellum involved with sensory motor integrationreceives information from the world through senses sensory system and then it puts out amessage to control the muscles motor controlcontrol of the motorsystem allows us to stand upwhen people have a problem with it they have trouble standing upand wander around like they are drunk sits on the top of the brain brain stemsupport of the brain Medullacore of the brainresponsible for basic life processeskeeping you alive and otherorganisms alive at the most basic levelheartbeat and respiration Midbrain reticular formationcontrolling sleep wakefulness cyclescircadian rhythms more complicated not a good place to have a strokedont wake upcomaForebrain anteriortoward the front posteriortoward the backThalamusrelay centerinfo coming from the spinal cord to the rest of thebrainHypothalamuscontrols life processes in a more complex waykeepingthe person alive and the species alive over a long period of timeeatingbehavior drinking territoriality fighting survival of the group individualand family sex finding a mate sexual behavior smells olfaction is reallyimportant maternal behavior if it feels good its in the hypothalamus finding feeding fighting fLimbic systemslide 7comprised of amygdala the hippocampus 1 Fall 2011PSYB65Human BrainBehavior seahorse hypothalamus olfactory bulb some people include involved in emotionsystem of interconnected brain structures involved in emotion andemotionality huge in humans Cerebral Cortex neocortex most anterior structure in the brainWhat the average person believes is the human brainit covers up everything else in the brainmost complex part of the brain and the biggest partintellectual reasoningPsychopathsome type of pathology in the amygdala same with epilepsyEvolution of the brain Slide 10Animals reached a certain point of evolution and then stopped because there was no longer a push to evolve furtherDogfishspinal cord starts off and is simply a tubeif you use a neuron more then the neuroplasticity increases nuclei formed in the anterior portion of the body more brain cells moreprocessing abilityTurtlesforebrain is a bit larger Goldfishforebrain is small Ratlarge forebrain Humanshuge forebrain Forebrain is associated with higher intellectual functions and the more intelligent a species the bigger the forebrain larger cortexElephants have the largest cortex Divide it by bodyweighthumans are still number two dolphins have the biggest cortexSize of a structure is directly related to the importance and function to that particular speciesThe most intelligent animals have the largest cerebral cortexDevelopment of brain from conception to adulthood Slide 11 Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny old saying individual development follows human developmentHumans have gills mamillian glands and a tail as we develop during the embryonic stageThe most developed part of the brain is the anterior part of the brainAs the cortex moves backwards it starts off as a smooth brain and once it has nowhere else to go the brain starts folding sulcigyri 2
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