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Lecture 11

Lecture 11 Clear and concise! (Neuropsychology of learning and memory, frontal and temporal lobe syndromes)

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 11 Neuropsychology of learning and memory frontal and temporal lobe syndromes Big tumourfull blown syndrome dependent on the amount brain deterioration FRONTAL LOBE SYNDROME damage to the prefrontal areamost anterior portiony Functions of the frontal lobe motor eg primary motor strip association cortex planning motor movements consequences of inappropriate behaviourHistory of Frontal lobe syndromePhrenology Gallfeeling the skull for bumps to determine characteristics thought intelligence was in the fronty Jacobson tested to see if intelligence resided in the frontal lobesRemoved prefrontal areas of monkeyshad a problem performing delayed response tasks WGTA Wisconsin General testing apparatus like a Skinner box for rats for MONKEYSif there was a delay between the monkey seeing the experimenter putting the raisin in one cup and choosing the right cup with the raisinthen the monkey could not pick the right cupIf the monkey sees a banana just beyond their reach outside a cage they will go to try to look for something to help them reach but in the time they go look for that aid they would forget about the banana delay between problem and solutionJacobson thought this was a problem with shortterm memory capacityy Jacobson tried testing monkey in different conditions eg in the dark with tranquilizer Realized that it was not a memory problem but an emotional componentdistractibility Problems in alternation eg blue or red cup with raisins monkeys lacked plasticity they were very rigidhard to change pattern y Jacobson had this special monkey with temper tantrumbecame calm after frontal lobotomy y Moniz neurosurgeontried frontal lobotomy on 20 human patients they all survived 7 recovered 7 improved best results was with depressed patients stopped lobotomies in 1944 because shocked by patientsy Freeman and Watts brought technique to North America operated on 3500 patients 18 had scard tissue and therefore epilepsy y 1950s developed drug therapyCharacteristics of patients that have undergone frontal lobotomy surgeryy IQ testingnormal scores frontal lobe has nothing to do with intelligencey Problem in changing inappropriate behaviour Playing cardssorting via suitcolournumber frontal lobe patients cannot alternate between sorting patterns they learn one and stick with one therefore lacking flexibility to changeIntellectually they can tell you how to sort in different patterns but they cannot perform the task y Dissociation between verbal and motor behaviourgiven a task patients can verbally explain to you what the directions are eg press red button with green light turns on but cannot do the task eg patients keep pressing the red buttonwhatever is easiest NOTE These patients actually think they are doing just fine characteristics similar to early stages of Alzeimerseg if patient was given a maze they will go right to the target without playing by the ru
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