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PSYB65H3 (519)
Ted Petit (310)

Lecture 4

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Lecture 4A switch from structure of the brain to functionBasic Neuron InformationUsually info comes into neuron through dendrites and if theres enough excitation then it will send a message through axonIon channels pores in the membrane of neurons and whenever a neuron is stimulated these channels open up and they allow sodium to come into the cell and when sodium comes Nain the inside of the cell becomes more positiveIf enough sodium comes in it reaches a particular threshold and this makes the inside of the membrane REALLY positive for a very brief period of time and then goes back to normalcalled a spike or action potentialThe reason for why sodium keeps rushing inas soon as some sodium comes in and makes it positive it opens up pores and affects other areas thereby causing more sodium to rush inthis effect spreadsContact point between 2 neurons synapseusually the axon of one cell to the dendrite of another cellAxon potential moves down axon and makes contact with dendrites or dendritic spine of the next neuronEnd of the axon there are seminal vessicleswithin these vessicles are transmitter substances When the action potential reaches the seminal vessicles to open up and release chemicals that affect the dendritesThe space btwn the axon and dendrite is known as the synaptic cleftActions occuring on axon side is called presynaptic and everything on the right of the synaptic cleft whatever goes on on dendrites is known as postsynapticThere are receptors on the postsynaptic membraneTransmitters from axon interacts with receptors on dendrites and turns it on opens up channels and allows sodium to come in on the postsynaptic sideDrugs usually involve some alteration of these alteration substancesTransmitter Substances and their LifeCycleParkinsons Disease brain doesnt make enough dopamineSchizophrenics too sensitive to dopaminealmost like they have too much dopamineoveractive dopaminergic systemHow can we fix this or intervene Well first understand how system works1System for SynthesisThere has to be a way to make the neurotransmittersIf youre trying to increase functional activity you want to increase synthesis2 StorageTransmitters have to be stored and protectedtheyre stored in seminal vessiclesIf not packaged they will be destroyedThere are also chemicals that can prevent them from being packagedThere are ways to decrease packaging so decrease packaging if you want to decrease functional activity3 Potential for ReleaseMust be released during action potentialIncrease release for increase in functional activity and vice versa for decrease in functional activity4 Receptor ActivationOnce its released it has to interact with the receptor
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