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PSYB65 Chapter 10.doc

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Ted Petit

PSYB65 Chapter 10 What is spatial ability: - targeting - spatial orientation - spatial location memory - spatial visualization - disembedding - spatial perception Hemispheric representaiton of space - Based on Hughlings-Jackson’s paper in 1874, its believed language is on left and spatial is on the right - Normal people can identify the location of a dot in space when it’s in left visual field. Therefore projected to right hemisphere - Right hemisphere involved with the recall of spatial location information - Depth perception o Local depth perception - use detailed features of objects point by point to assess relative position o Global depth perception – use difference between information reaching each eye to compute entire visual scene. Eg.stereograms - Right hemisphere better at determining global depth perception. - Local depth perceiton is disrupted when both right and left hemsiphere is lesioned. - Line orientation: right hemisphere advantage for tactile and visual assessment of line orientation - if line orientation is describved verbally, then left hemisphere is advantaged - often ask measures more than one ability when it’s meant to only measure one - right hemisphere also superior in recognizing whether a novel figure had been previously viewed - detection of motion = increased activity in right hemisphere, particularly ocipital, temporal and parietal areas that process visual information - mental rotation: rotation that is not overt. Have to imagine it in your had. Eg. Task to look at 2 items and decide if they’re same are different. o Found that this relies on right hemisphere Parietal lobes - visual information goes through o ventral visual stream: what pathway. Identifying objects o dorsal visual stream: how pathway. How should motor acts perform to manipulate an object  dorsal stream suports spatial processing of infmration. Projects from primary visual to parietal regions - parietal areas 5 and 7 – responds to movements and occur in specific directions, allowing objects to be tracked in space. Responds best to movements that are similar in speed to walking or running o sensitive to retinotopic representstionas of space as well as head position, movement, and speed of movement - when lesioned, monkeys can’t learn to pick up item only if it’s close to another object. Similar in humans. - Discrimination of form involves ventral stresam - Spatial location involves dorsal stream. - Greater activation in right parietal lobes when participants were asked to perform tasks requiring spatial location Frontal lobes - consists of premotor an dprefrontal cortex - provides coordinate system of visual space and to locat eobjhects in space - parietal cortex projects to frontal motor system to guide movements in space - nuclei in frontal lobes directs head and eyes toward simuli in grasping space - imagining construction of a 3D object involves actiavtion of dorsal prmotor cortex and dorsal stream in parietal lobe. - Patients with dorsolateral prefrontal lesions most impaired when visuospatial working memory required to guide motor repsonse - Performanc eof visuospatial working memory tasks engages dorsal stream along with its ocnnections to frontal lobe Temporal lobes - dorsal stream identifyies where object is in space - evidence ventral stream identifies what the object is - spatial localization of objects increases activity in temporal lobes - temporal lobes, hippocampual formation also involved with spatial learning o includes dentate gyrus, hippocampus and subciculum. - Hippocampus engage in processing memory for places. - Rats with hippocampal lesions can’t remember important locations - Place cells – some cells presond to certain locations and other repsond only to other locations. - 3 types of information about object o position repsonses – movements using the body. Only requires information about your body. o cued responses – types of movements guided by a cue. Changes in how we perceive stimulus. Rely on perception of information that is external to body. Compare your body with another object o place responses – responses toward location or object. Made even when stimulus not present. It’s also relational. - Intrapersonal space: space around your body, icndluing your body - Extrapersonal space: space more than 5ft away from you. Personal representations of space - Acredolo test: seated in a chair. Blindfolded, and desks and chairs are moved across the room. when blindfold removed asked to return to original position. Extrapersonal space - using acredolo test, participant makes cued repsonse to walk toward desk and chain (but it’s been moved so they’d be wrong). - Making a place repsonse, ask them to position desk with respect to position of the door and window (not moved). Person making place response shohld be able to notice movement of desk and return to correct original position - Other studies use mazes, most common – water maze. Have to find hidden platform. Unlesioned rats can learn task of finding platform easily. Rats with hippocampal lesions do not learn where hidden playform is o If platform placed above water, then maze would rely on cued response and both lesioned or unlesioned hippocampus rats can solve it - Taxi drivers imaginged navigation = enhacned activity in right hippocampus. Longer taxi driving experience = larger hippocampus - Dead reckoning: place response, rats demonstraite that they know how to take short cuts back to their cage. - Rats with lesions to fornix, dierupts funcitoning of hippomcapus don’t use dead reckoning. They follow path they used to get to their food (follow string/cued
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