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PSYB65 chapter 6.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Ted Petit

Chapter 6 - Sleeping sickness (encephalitis lethargic) virus that attacked striatal regions of brain. People were emotionless, like zombies. But i-dopa became a cure and people started to act spontaneously and had mood swings, excitements and other emotional effects. Example of how brain regions and neurotransmitters are involved with emotion - Neuroimaging: machine that monitors biochemical events in a series of conceptual slices through a person’s brain. Computer takes this information and constructs visual images of the brain to show which regions have been metabolically active o Positron emission tomography (PET) o fMRI (movie pictures, changing activity o and also look at effects of accidental damage or lesions in animals, stimulate electrically, pharmacologically, electrical recording etc - hindbrain – physiological - medulla-cardiovascular - pons-sleep - cerebellum-motor movement - thalamus- sensory - hippocampus-memory - hypothalamus – eating, sex, aggression, body temperature - limbic system- including amygdale makes us different from other species - frontal lobes- planning and intentional action, emotional regulation - Descartes- sensory is strings being pulled opening valves for fluids o But actually electric and chem. Signals. Same framework o But emotions more complex. Early research on brain lesions and stimulation - Bard- cats deprived of cortex make inappropriate sudden attacks. Sham rage. o But can live long - Cortex inhibits sham rage. - Hess and Brugger lesions/electrical stimulation = angry behaviour from hypothalamus. - Cannon and Bard- lower levels of the brain/hind brain are reflex pathways related to simple functions like posture and movement. Next are evolved, and highest evolve controls all levels below o Children who can’t control emotion is because cortex not developed to inhibit lower functions o Eg. Phineas gage. Limbic system - Papez- thalamus plsits into 3 streams o striatal (movement), neocortex (thought), limbic system/hypothalamus (feeling) o Maclean elaborated - Forebrain 3 systems:  Reptilian: stratial/movement/generating basic behaviours. Eg. Marking, patrolling, hunting, greeting, grooming.  Damage (huntingdon’s chorea) unable to organize daily activities  Paleomamillian: /limbic system/social.  Link with hypothalamus- controls ANS with pituitary gland  Neomamilian: neocortex/inhibits primitive behaviours - Kluber and Bucy: wild monkeys amygdale removed no fear - Olds and Milner: rats not hungry or thirsty when electrode tips into septal aprts of limbic systems. Pleasureable part of brain - Glickamn: activation pleasurable or unpleasurable when it is to approach or withdraw. Good mood = approach, bad mood = avoid - Epilepsy- nerve cells all fire in a self-sustaining pattern. In temporal lobe epilepsy it happens in limbic region and leads to strong emotions. - Maclean-Panksepp conjecture: experience of emotions is generated in the limbic system and that each distinct emotion type is based on a particular system of limbic brain circuitry o Emotion  action - We are like other mammals. Even though we have enhanced modes of emotional relatedness like language, we have primitive feelings and can’t be cognitively controlled. - PET has shown that brain activation increases with emotions when asked to recall experiences for each emotion. all subcortical activation, especially limbic system. Cortex activity even decreased Amygdala - Emotional computer- appraisal mechanism for emotions o receives from cortex/visual recognition and recognition of sounds. o Also connected to hypothalamus. o Amygdale receives visual/auditory inputs through thalamus - Pavlovian conditioning is emotion about what is important. Readiness for pleasant or unpleasant o Negative stimuli quick to learn, slow to extinguish - Rats conditioned as long as amygdale and thalamus present, even if cortex removed o Thus, emotional learning can still occur. Amygdale is core of central network of emotional processing - Amygdale-primary appraisal. Automatic evalutation of events in relation to goals and concerns. Assigns emotional significance. - Amygdale increase activation in response to emotionally evocative stimuli (eg. Sad, disturbing films, unpleasant tasts and odors, etc) - Fear faces and sad faces activate left amygdale (and right temporal lobe) - Fmri studies found people have more activity in amygdale for longer for faces of other ethnic groups. They remain threat but not same ethnic group - Depressive biopolar = enlarged amygdales or higher activation. - Recalling negative stimuli correlatied with activation in amygdale and insula (eg. Recalling gorey pictures) - Amygdale not involved in experience of emotions. Damage does not impair expression of emotions - Could be what evaluates fear but others say it’s whole limbic system together Prefrontal cortex - Also called neocortex. Largest development. 80% of brain. - Inhibits primitive behaviours of lower regions. - Frontal lobes as regulation and executive control. - Has 3 areas: orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulated/medial frontal - Connections with amygdale and mucleus accumbens: involved in wanting and liking - Orbitofrontal cortex involved with representation of goals and rewards, approach/withdrawal tendencies - Evidence of role in regulation: o Damage to orbifrontal cortex = problems regulating emotional behaviour. Behaviourally inappropriate. Difficulty empathizing with others and judging others emotions o Imaging studies show regions of prefrontal activated when try to inhibit emotional responses to evocative stimuli. (eg. Reaprassing negative emotion) Lateralization - Right brain damage: paralysis on left and unable to recognize emotions - Left brain damage: paralysis on right and language impairment - Right side = processing emotional events. Eg. Chimeric faces - Recognition of emotional expressions is better for faces in left visual field (when shown pics of faces flashing) - Damage to left cortex better than damage to right in recognizing liars (through facial cues) - Right brain superiority recognizes facial expressio
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