October 17 2011
Sensory motor systems:
Frontal lobe primary motor function, in the division of the frontal lobe which is primary motor.
Precentral is motor, postcentral is sensory.
What happens when those areas get damaged? What happens when someone gets a stroke there. Real
world problems. Decoding and rencoding language is also important.
Talk about visual system, the little homunculus, motor system adamge. Frontal lobe. Parkinson’s
Sensory and motor systems today.
Anatomical organization and functional organization. What kind of things could be wrong with this
Eyes: retinas are right down the middle. Anatomically divided. Visual field. Is what you see, what the
person can see out there. Technically divided into right half field, and left half field. Real world we
shorten it, the right visual field and left visual field. Your nervous system is divided in such a way so that
your fields are divided into halfs because your retinas are divided into two halves. Retina part closest to
nose is the nasal portion. Part of the retina that is closest to the nose. Other half of the retina that is
cloest to your head or temple, is the temporal portion.
The nerves come together from the eyes to a point to a single nerve, single point. Separate nerves
leaving the eyes are optic nerves. Optic chaism is where they meet. Then they separate again, this point
is called the optic tract. Nerve is outside, tract is inside. Closest to eye is nerve, closest to brain is tract.
The nasal portion crosses, and the temporal portions stay on the same side. So the temporal portions go
to their respective cortexes, but the nasal portions will cross.
Pupils are very small, light can get into it, but the openings are very small. If you have something on the
left hand side and it gets through the hole. If you take your hand and hold it off to the right, your nose
will block partially. Right hand = nasal portion of the right, temporal portion of the left. And vice versa.
Something in your right visual field, it’s gonna hit the nasal portion of your right eye, on the temporal
portion of your left eye. Will hit the left hand portion of each eye. Left field goes to right cortex, left field
goes to right cortex. Because the nsal portions will cross. Not retina, but visual field!!!
1. eyes can see more on the right than left, not perfect circles however. Can’t see much like on the right,
can see much further on the right.
2. destroy right nerves, cannot see anything there. Normal vision is completely gone
3. severing the optic chaism. Only the nasal portions, the tracts that cross. The nasal portion of each
retina. Bitemporal hemianopia. Right eye will not be able to see something in the far right the left side
cannot see out the far left. Blind in the nasal portions of each eye, so the far left of the left, far right of
4. temporal portion of the right eye. The left eye should be bperfect normal. The temporal portion of
the right eye sees from the left. So that section will be damaged. Blind on left portion of right eye. Need
to use diagrams
5.cut the right optic tract, the person will lose the temporal portion of the right eye, lose the nasal
portion of the left eye. Left eye cannot see from the left, right eye cannot see from the left either as the
temporal portion of the right eye has been severed. Remember that the temporal sees from the
6. cuttingthe cortex and
7. macular staring, can see from a little dot. If you destroy something earlier on, you can’t see anything,
destroying it later you can still see. Macular sparing. Like number 5, you won`t be able to see out of the
left sides of your eyes because the nasal section of the left eye has been destroyed, as has the temporal portion of the right eye. Corpus collusm maybe?
So you can tell where the damage is by mapping. Tell where a tumor is through waving things in patients
First part anatomy how the system is built, second part function.
What is the function of the nervous system at each of these levels?
The more central the neuron (cortex vs retina, associational cortex vs primary cortex), the more
advanced the area of the brian, the more complex the image is that excites it. The more complex the
images that excite it. In the retina, a neuron responds to a spot of light falling on its receptive field. Light
falls on the field or it doesn’t. dark or light. Area 17, primary receptive area for the occipital lobe, there,
the neuron can decipher lines of light oriented in a specific direction, not simple but also not
complicated. In the associational cortex, they integrate information form neurons and but information
together. Neurons there are able to build up information that can respond to faces or hands. Or specific
faces or specifc hands. Much higher order. Like a computer, build upon information from the source to
the next level. Even further the neruons respond to specific faces and specific hands. Build on
information from the perivous source and takes it to the next level.
You can tell a lesion based on what they cannot see. But not able to recognize things is a different story. If you get complete damage to the right occipital cortex, a major stroke into the posterior cerebral
artery of the right cerebral occipital cortex, you will get complete blindness in the left hand side, left
hand visual field except for that tiny little spot in the middle, macular sparing. If you get incomplete
damage in the right occiptital cortex, then you will get partial blindness from the opposite visual field.
Small amount of damage, then a tiny area of blindness in the opposite visual field. Smaller and smaller,
scotoma. Small area of of blindness in the visual field where the nerves leave the retina where rods and
cone don’t exist. Refers to the behaviour. We each have a small soctoma, that is natural. We don’t
notice that we have a scotoma.
20, 21, 17, 18, 19 in more complex areas, you will miss faces on the right hand side of the brain. Have
problems with faces, complex material. Faces on right, verbal material on the left hand side of the brain.
Language is on the left side of the brain, right next to the temporal lobe. Right is spatial kind of
information that is lost. When you have this kind of damage, you have perceptual problems. Faces and
patterns are lost. Particullary with faces, there are of syndromes associated with this. More on the right
side, verbally related on the left hand side of the brain. Language is on the left hand side of the brain.
When you have thse kind of damages, these are known as syndromes associated with specific ares. We
understand these syndromes more through their behaviour than the damage to their brain.
What they can or cannot do. Syndromes of behaviours.
Visual agnoisa: a means you can’t do it. Don’t know, don’t understand. Inability to recognize objects for
what they are. Typically damage from left occipital lobe. Pick up something and show them it and ask
them what it is. Need to know what’s wrong with the brain and need to tell what the patient can and
cannot do, although a MRI can tell you maybe what they can and cannot do. They c annot figure what it
is or used for. Typically from the left occipital lobe.
Another very classic syndrome is prosophenosia , person cannot recognize faces. Cannot distinguish
faces. There are very subtle differences in faces, especially in familes etc. Whenever there is damage to
higher order structures, not being able to recognize faces happens, and is extremely debilitating. Very
important to recognize faces. They also may not be able to recognize other complex objects. Bilateral
damage to 18 and 19. may not distingusih a pineapple and pappaya etc.
Color agnosia: a problem with colors, the colors seem less intense to people after damage. In extreme
cases they may lose color vision completely. Usually a loss of color. Typically from bilateral damage to
the occipital temporal area.
Like pixelated videos. You can see it, but you don’t have enoguh processing power to say who it is, only
that it is.
Everything you see in the right visual field hits the left half. Everytihng from the left half hits the right
hand side. Somatasensory information comes in to the postcentral gyrus. Parietal lobe, just past the central
sulcuss, the sensory humunuclus. What happens when you get damage in this area of the brain? In the
parietal cortex in the somatasensory systen. You get altered sensory thresholds. For example: we can
test this at the best side, touch the person soft or touch the person hard. Can also see how much they
can distinguish to whether something is one point or two points. Normally people can sense this very
well on hands, but with damage to their somatsenosry thresholsd, they may not be able to tell. People
with damage cannot distinguish thresholds, cannot tell where they are being touched. Altered sensory
thresholds. Cannot distinguish as precisely as people with normal cortexes.
The rough stuff i